*Write happen in adults. The experiment comprised of two


*Write a 3-4-sentence “overview” or brief summary of the article. Indicate your assessment of what the study is about and the major findings of the study.     Decision making is a process primarily driven by emotions. In this article, the study of children’s decision making and the study of children’s sense of agency can help to understand why emotional experiences are influenced by how we control our actions. By examining children’s emotional experiences through their decision-making process, through monitoring the range of emotions at different points. We can in turn offer results that will help determine what can happen in adults. The experiment comprised of two separate scenarios to rate the emotions of the children, before and after discovering the outcome of the decision they made. A positive emotional state was said to be higher in the experiment where the children were able to choose their ticket, which was the choice condition. The no choice condition the children didn’t get that sense of control as they did in the choice condition, so the emotions of the children were not as happy (Castelli et al., 2017).According to the paper’s introduction, what information was already known about the topic – so here look for references to previous research?     Information on this topic was done in another study which explored the emotions of disappointment and regret in children in the 7-8 year bracket. This study showed that children of this age understand these emotions but they do not know how to anticipate what they will do to manage these emotions when they come up until about age 9-10 (Castelli et al., 2017).    2. What variables are they interested in? What are their hypotheses concerning these variables?     This study is interested in understanding if a child’s sense of control can contribute to the understanding of emotions in the decision-making process. Especially emotions like disappointment, which has been studied only marginally. This study should depend on whether the children have to opportunity to choose or not and what will happen when they are faced with a bad outcome from their decision, and rate the emotions during each step (Castelli et al., 2017).    3. How do they operationally define the variables studied?     They want to evaluate the emotions of disappointment in children. During a decision-making process where there is a possibility of being able to choose or to not be able to choose their outcome, and what happens after they do (Castelli et al., 2017).    4. Who were the participants in this study? Were there any special participant characteristics? Where did they find their participants?     There are 107 children participating in this study, between the ages of 7 and 10. They are all in primary school in northern Italy. Each child has a written consent form from their parents and was never referred to social services or reported for learning problems. Two age groups were created for this study, those younger and in their second and third year in school, which included 19 males and 35 females. Then those older and in their fourth and fifth year in school, which included 21 males and 23 females (Castelli et al., 2017).    5. Describe the procedure(s) used to test the hypotheses? Did you notice any problematic features of the procedure?     The study is going to rate the emotions before and after the children discover the outcome of their decision, between a choice condition where the children will get to pick a ticket in order to win and a no-choice condition, where the children will not be given a choice on the ticket they choose. The person conducting the experiment gave the children a scenario for the study. They were going to play an amusement park style lottery where they had a chance to win candy. For a good outcome they received 10 and for a bad outcome, they received 1 candy. The results showed that each of the conditions always received bad outcomes. The children were asked to rate their emotions on a scale of 1-7 ranging from bad to good. They rated their emotions before making the decision, when they had the ticket and did not yet know the outcome, and after they had discovered the outcome (Castelli et al., 2017).    6. What were the major results of the study? Were the results consistent with the hypotheses?     The results of the study show that, by promoting the illusion of control to the children by letting them choose their ticket, the children were happier in general than in the no-choice condition. After the children discovered the bad outcome, their emotions collapsed for both age groups. The initial range of emotions in the choice condition was significantly higher than in the no-choice condition. Also, the means of emotions in the choice condition after discovering the bad outcome was higher than in the no choice conditions, in both age groups. Which seems to support the idea that the children who got the illusion of control, by being able to choose their ticket sustained the emotional rates thus made them happier than the children who did not get to choose their outcome (Castelli et al., 2017).7. How did the researcher interpret the results? Can you think of alternative interpretations?     The children who were able to have a sense of control over their choices in the decision making process were able to have a high emotional rating. Therefore made them happier, even with the bad outcome each time (Castelli et al., 2017).8. Did the author give suggestions for future research or applications? Can you provide other suggestions?     The study used the thermometer of emotions to help the children rate the experiments. They did not label the emotions, just used to bad to good scale of 1-7. Which in turn made it difficult to rate the scale exactly the same because each child completed indifferently when they had the decision to choose a ticket or not to. Which did not allow for a precise label of emotions like disappointment, anger or sadness? Hopefully, future research could try a different measure of emotions that can capture of the children are feeling exactly, in order to fully understand the decision making abilities and how the emotions are involved in each process (Castelli et al., 2017).Reference:Castelli, I., Massaro, D., Sanfey, A. G., & Marchetti, A. (2017). The More I Can Choose, The More I Am Disappointed: The “Illusion of Control” in Children’s Decision-Making.The Open Psychology Journal,10(1), 55-60. doi:10.2174/1874350101710010055

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