To [6], Cruise/General Motors [7, 8, 9], Mercedes Benz

To meet the
complex demands of AVs, many technology companies and automakers (e.g. Audi 4,
5, Aurora 6, Cruise/General Motors 7, 8, 9, Mercedes Benz 10, 11, 12,
13, Honda 14, 15, Hyundai/Kia 16, 17, Intel/Mobileye 18, 19, 20, Nissan/Renault
21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, nuTonomy 27, 28, 29, Volvo 30, 31, Waymo 14,
32) has developed a similar method to array the several sensors that allow the
vehicle to perceive the world in 360 degrees, both in daytime and at night.


Sensors as
LiDAR (Light Detecting and Ranging), Long- Mid- and Short-Range Radars as well
as cameras, scan constantly the surrounding to detect any dynamic and/or static
objects around the vehicle (e.g. pedestrians, cyclists, vehicles, traffic
lights, obstructions and other road features). The sensors work together seamlessly
to paint a detailed 3D image of the world to continuously translate dynamic
driving task into commands, i.e. the operational (e.g. steering, braking,
accelerating, and monitoring the vehicle on the roadway) and tactical (e.g. responding
to events, determining when to change lanes, turn, use signals, etc.) aspects
of the driving task. For each dynamic artefact on the road, the software predicts
the future movements and behaviours based on the current speed and trajectory
of the vehicle. Upon received all the information the software will calculate
the exact trajectory, speed, lane, and steering manoeuvres needed to progress
along its route safely.

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In other
words, AVs a) perceive the environment around, b) process the information, c)
predict how others artefacts will behave, and c) make driving decisions based
on perceived information 33.


Despite the
ripeness of the industry, it is currently impossible, due to the several
vehicle safety standards, to bring onto the market AVs 34. Yet the car manufactories
are pressing the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to
generate as soon as possible an adequate legislation for AVs, but it has been estimated
that it will take up to seven years to get the regulations done 35.


Nonetheless the
restrictions many companies already started to develop alternative mobility
services based on the upcoming new technology, e.g. Uber , Lyft , Cruise ,
Grab , Waymo , just to name a few.