will cover certain aspects of search engine optimization (SEO). Search engine
optimization is the practice and process of optimizing the visibility of a
website or webpage in the search engines. For many companies this is extremely
important since Google processes between 60,000 and 65,000 search queries every
second (Sullivan, 2016). If a potential customer is searching
on a specific keyword or keywords that relates to the company or product, it is
important that the webpage will appear on the first page, preferably even in
the first 3 search results. According to a research by Smart Insights, the
click through rate (CTR) of the first position is between 35 and 45%, this is a
relatively high number compared to the second position with a CTR of around 20%
(Chaffey, 2016). This goes all the way down to rank 7
where the CTR is only 5%. This means that if the webpage appears on the second
page of the results page, it has become very close to 0%.
biggest search engine worldwide, constantly updates the algorithm in order to
give those who search the best results. While Google does not clearly tell what
all the rules are, there are well known ways of optimizing a website in order
to rank higher in the search engine result pages.
Google’s SEO Starter Guide, “Search engine optimization is often about making
small modifications to parts of your website. When viewed individually, these
changes might seem like incremental improvements, but when combined with other
optimizations, they could have a noticeable impact on your site’s user
experience and performance in organic search results.” (Google, 2010).
covers everything that is related to optimizing the website itself, as the word
says it: on the website. This is mainly related to keywords a website wants to
be found for in the search engines.
An Intelligent Personal Assistant (IPA) is
software that is able to help customers with everyday tasks by using natural
language. From the weather report, making telephone calls, searching the web to
setting an alarm clock or a reminder, it is all possible with the recent IPA’s.
Every IPA has their own functions and possibilities but usually the main
functions are similar. By pressing a button or saying a command word (e.g. ‘Hey
Siri’ or ‘Ok, Google’) the device will listen to the user and will provide
information or fulfilling a command according to that.
have been skeptic about the use of an IPA due to frustration if the IPA did not
understand the command correctly. However, in the last years there has been an
enormous development of this software with most IPA’s having an error rate of
between 5% and 10%, close to the human error rate (Price, 2017).
research, the 5 largest companies providing an IPA will be researched:
Siri by Apple Inc.
Apple’s IPA, available on the last generations of the iPhone, iPad and iPod
Touch. It is voice controlled, it talks back and Siri understands context and
relationships. For example, if a user says: ‘Call my brother’, Siri will
understand who your brother is and will call the number. Furthermore Siri is
able, to provide assistance with your time management, search queries, give
directions, send text messages or read an incoming text message out loud to the
Apple device user (Gil & Kazmucha, 2017).
Cortana by Microsoft Corporation
voice-controlled virtual assistant is called Cortana, designed for the
Microsoft Windows Phone. It is similar to Siri, using Microsoft’s Bing search
engine. As other IPA’s, Cortana enables the user to find information, make
appointments and reminders and use features of other installed applications.
The more information a user shares with Cortana, the more it personalizes.
Based on location and past behavior of the user, the female personal assistant
gives advice and suggestions (Beal, 2017).
S Voice by Samsung Electronics
S Voice is an
IPA for Samsung devices. The functions of S Voice are similar to the other
virtual personal assistant apps. By saying ‘Hi Galaxy’, the app will listen to
your request and does what is asked (Lin, 2014).
Alexa by Amazon.com, Inc.
Alexa can be
compared to Siri but it is available as an app on Android smartphones and it is
included in Amazon’s Echo-products, which is a speaker with Alexa Voice
Services and it is even integrated in some LG refrigerators. The possibilities
with Alexa are very similar to other IPA’s, although Alexa enables a user to
connect their house or directly order Amazon products. When a customer buys
multiple devices with Alexa, they are connected and thus can play different
music in different rooms. Moreover, more companies are collaborating with
Amazon. As an example, the Philips Hue Light can be controlled by Alexa, which
makes it possible to change the light (color, brightness) according to the
customer’s preferences (Amazon, 2017).
Google Now/Google Assistant by Google LLC
Google Now is
Google’s voice-activated assistant, very similar to Siri and Cortana, however
it is not limited to one platform. The app can be used on both iOS and Android
devices. The same functions apply, such as setting an alarm, scheduling events,
posting on social media and searching the internet. By saying “Ok, Google”, the
app will give the user access to everything that can be found on Google.
Regardless of those functions, it does not personalize as much as Cortana and
Siri, but Google Assistant does (Purewal, 2016). Google Assistant is basically the next
version of Google Now, it is integrated into the Google Pixel phone and Google
Home, which is a speaker similar to Amazon’s Alexa and thus is able to connect
devices in the house to create the ‘Internet of Things’.