There the organization” (Gilley and Eggland, 1989:48) Kalleberg (1977)



There have been numerous
studies examining the relationship between gender and job satisfaction, in
particular the fulfillment of women in the workplace. Recent work by
Blanchflower and Oswald (1992) using British data, and Blanchflower et al. (1993) using American
data, reports a higher job satisfaction of women. This finding is in line with
analysis by Clark (1997) stating that women consistently report increased job
satisfaction scores than do men, however, despite consistent findings in
empirical labour economics of a large gender pay gap, despite greater stress
levels in the day to day life of women, and despite evidence that women’s jobs
are worse in relation to hiring and firing, job content, promotion
opportunities and sexual harassment. This paradox, as Clarke (1997) argues, can
be explained by the fact that woman tend to have lower expectations of what
their work will do for them in terms of well-being. This is in line with
Kalleberg´s (1977) finding that men place greater valuation on the intrinsic dimension
of work than women do. 1  plag ok bis hier


(lower a person´s expectations
from working are, the  more satisfied the
person will be with any job.

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(The resolution of this
paradox is suggested to lie in the importance of expectations in well-being:
those who expect less from working will be more satisfied with any given job.)

andere: Further studies by
Clark (1997) supports this view of

higher job satisfaction in
women, but it can be reasoned by the fact that women in fact

have lower expectations of
what they seek in the employment relationship.)


The following hypothesis is
therefore put forward:


Hypothesis 2: Gender impacts job




Career development has been
defined as an “organized planned effort comprised of

structured activities or
processes resulting in mutual career plotting effort between

employees and the organization”
(Gilley and Eggland, 1989:48) Kalleberg (1977) empirically examining the
concept of job satisfaction, developed six dimensions of work, one being the
extrinsic dimension of opportunities a job provides. The analysis included the
quality of chances for promotion, fair management of promotions and employer’s concern
about equal opportunity for career advancement.


Herzberg’s (1975) Motivation-Hygiene
Theory, argues that motivation factors like advancement opportunities and possibility
of growth have the ability to boost job satisfaction. However, opportunity for
career development and advancement, such as training and development programmes
may not be effective to employees unless these give them the satisfaction they
require. Opportunities should be equal and any methods used must be tailored to
the employee´s specific needs in order to improve their performance (Thompson J,
1967). Furthermore, career development theories like constructivism and
adaptability encourage the development of purposeful/meaningful careers,
indicating that career development and advancement opportunities have a
positive impact on job satisfaction.



Hypothesis 3: Equal
opportunity for career development and advancement positively influences job

1 Work Values and Job Rewards: A Theory of Job Satisfaction Author(s): Arne
L. Kalleberg Source: American Sociological Review, Vol. 42, No. 1 (Feb., 1977),
pp. 124-143 Published by: American Sociological Association Stable URL: Accessed: 12-01-2018 15:19 UTC