There physical efficiency for all players with significant differences

            There
were no apparent differences between all athletes in the anthropometric
variables including weight, height, age and training age (Table 1) since both
skewness and kurtosis ranged between ± 3.

 

(Table 1)
Anthropometric parameters homogeneity N(14)

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 The variables

Mean

Std. Deviation

Skewness

Kurtosis

Age

19.29

.91

04

-.65

Height

166.21

2.58

.17

-1.13

T age

12.07

1.00

-.16

.75

Weight

66.18

1.87

.03

-.83

Show insignificant between the two groups in(Height, Weight,
Age, T-Age )

 

 

 

Handball training program lead to increased skills
with remarkable significant difference in results (p < 01) of all skills.  Results before program compared to that obtained after program and tapering effects are represented in table (2) and (2-b).   (Table 2) Skills data parameters (Mean ± SD)   Performance skills  Before Program After High intensity After Tapering Meanr 1 Mean DANOVAANOVA Sum of Squares Sum of Squares11df11df Mean Square ± SD Mean DANOVAANOVA ± SD Mean DANOVAANOVA ± SD   drippling 17.17 1.29 16.52 1.10 18.48 1.46   high jump shooting 7.50 1.09 8.21 .70 6.07 1.14   long jump shooting 3.02 .46 3.48 .38 2.18 .44   passing 30.00 1.75 31.07 1.69 24.21 2.52   side defense steps 6.67 .69 6.27 .76 7.86 .83   Of course tapering – as expected- improved all skills more than that of program ending that of high intensity training sessions (Table 2-B).    (Table 2-B) Skills ANOVA test Performance skills    Sum of Squares df Mean Square F p   drippling Between Groups 28.009 2 14.004 8.372 .001 Within Groups 65.234 39 1.673 Total 93.243 41    high jump shooting Between Groups 33.333 2 16.667 16.759 .000 Within Groups 38.786 39 .995 Total 72.119 41    long jump shooting Between Groups 12.208 2 6.104 33.513 .000 Within Groups 7.104 39 .182 Total 19.312 41    passing Between Groups 381.000 2 190.500 46.643 .000 Within Groups 159.286 39 4.084 Total 540.286 41    side defense steps Between Groups 19.068 2 9.534 16.426 .000 Within Groups 22.637 39 .580 Total 41.705 41                 More over, all physical parameters showed highly significant differences after program compared to that before programs. Also, tapering more increased physical efficiency for all players with significant differences compared to that obtained after program (Table 3 & 3-B).   (Table 3) Physical data parameters (Mean ± SD) Performance Physical Before Program After High intensity After Tapering  accuracy 21.1 ± 2.38 28.28 ± 2.33 29.42 ± 2.10  agility 18.28 ± 0-68 19.27 ± 0.54 21.77 ± 0.47  compatibility 16.34 ± 1.23 15.06 ± 0.78 14.27 ± 0.57  elasticity 45.89 ± 5.56 42.30 ± 4.41 40.10 ± 4.39  velocity 6.44 ± 038 5.70 ± 0.47 5.39 ± 0.42  Right arm power 25.85 ± 2.14 29.07 ± 1.94 30.42 ± 1.65  Left arm power 21.21 ± 1.93 23.33 ± 1.29 24.67 ± 1.20  Legs power 66.53 ± 3.38 69.21 ± 3.04 70.42 ± 2.93  arms muscle capacity 17.38 ± 1.48 25.21 ± 2.15 26.71 ± 2.16  legs muscle capacity (A) 24.07 ± 1.90 28.46 ± 5.06 29.75 ± 4.39  legs muscle capacity (B) 2.12 ± 0.26 2.79 ± 2.04 3.35 ± 1.95  muscle endurance (Abdomen) 22.42 ± 2.46 29.5 ± 3.90 30.92 ± 3.77  muscle endurance (arms) 23.71 ± 2.52 30.92 ± 3.22 33.07 ± 3.27  muscle endurance (legs) 21 ± 2.66 26.64 ± 3.75 27.42 ± 4.07  psychological endurance 4.22 ± 0.49 3.52 ± 0.44 3.32 ± 0.43 (Table 3-B) Physical ANOVA test (Before program, after High intensity & after tapering) Performance Physical   Sum of Squares df Mean Square F p  accuracy Between Groups 233.029 2 116.515 23.349 .000 Within Groups 194.614 39 4.990 Total 427.643 41    agility Between Groups 24.368 2 12.184 21.010 .000 Within Groups 22.617 39 .580 Total 46.985 41    arms muscle capacity Between Groups 108.535 2 54.267 26.996 .000 Within Groups 78.397 39 2.010 Total 186.931 41    compatibility Between Groups 12.984 2 6.492 3.787 .031 Within Groups 66.860 39 1.714 Total 79.844 41    elasticity Between Groups 142.000 2 71.000 2.676 .081 Within Groups 1034.696 39 26.531 Total 1176.696 41    Left arm power Between Groups 76.264 2 38.132 10.150 .000 Within Groups 146.521 39 3.757 Total 222.786 41    legs muscle capacity A Between Groups 190.452 2 95.226 17.883 .000 Within Groups 207.667 39 5.325 Total 398.119 41    legs muscle capacity B Between Groups 6.938 2 3.469 25.115 .000 Within Groups 5.387 39 .138 Total 12.324 41    Legs power Between Groups 131.936 2 65.968 7.153 .002 Within Groups 359.665 39 9.222 Total 491.601 41    muscle endurance (Abdomen) Between Groups 594.302 2 297.151 22.133 .000 Within Groups 523.603 39 13.426 Total 1117.905 41    muscle endurance (arms) Between Groups 683.460 2 341.730 38.501 .000 Within Groups 346.159 39 8.876 Total 1029.619 41    muscle endurance (legs) Between Groups 375.136 2 187.568 15.908 .000 Within Groups 459.840 39 11.791 Total 834.976 41    psychological indurance Between Groups 5.717 2 2.859 13.035 .000 Within Groups 8.553 39 .219 Total 14.270 41    Right arm power Between Groups 147.312 2 73.656 19.012 .000 Within Groups 151.093 39 3.874 Total 298.405 41    velocity Between Groups 7.153 2 3.576 17.225 .000 Within Groups 8.097 39 .208 Total 15.250 41     Although miRNA 206 levels increased numerically after the training program in resting, there were no significant differences in results. Reverse to miRNA 206 results, miRNA 1 results were significantly increased in all stages of the training sessions including tapering. Effort results are increased after program with significant increase in ratio of miRNA levels indicating adaptation of skeletal muscles to the training program with remarkable increase after tapering too (Table 4 & 4-B).   (Table 4 & 4-B) Difference between microRNA- 1 & 206 levels for investigated subjects (before training program compared to after & after tapering)   Mean  ± SD miRNA 1 (U/ml) Before program After High intensity After tapering rest 433.1 ± 88.41 599.9 ± 62.96 622.2 ± 112.83 effort 478.2 ± 68.09 750.7 ± 59.25 852.8 ± 116.73  ratio change due to effort 1.12 ± 0.08 1.39 ± 0.15 1.26 ± 0.14 miRNA 206 (U/ml) Before program After program After tapering rest 654.8 ± 64.98 684 ± 70.41 684.2 ± 74.86 effort 685.5 ± 72.55 783.2 ± 95.35 761.5 ± 49.51 ratio change due to effort 1.047 ± 0.06 1.148 ± 0.11 1.12 ±0.07   (Table 4-B) ANOVA test for miRNA levels investigated in handball players     Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. miRNA 1 rest Between Groups 213594.467 2 106797.233 13.072 .000 Within Groups 220595.400 27 8170.200 Total 434189.867 29   miRNA 1 effort Between Groups 750019.400 2 375009.700 51.670 .000 Within Groups 195959.300 27 7257.752 Total 945978.700 29   miRNA 1 ratio Between Groups .365 2 .183 11.479 .000 Within Groups .430 27 .016 Total .795 29   miRNA 206 rest Between Groups 5723.467 2 2861.733 .581 .566 Within Groups 133053.200 27 4927.896 Total 138776.667 29   miRNA 206 effort Between Groups 52640.600 2 26320.300 4.698 .018 Within Groups 151266.600 27 5602.467 Total 203907.200 29   miRNA 206 ratio Between Groups .054 2 .027 3.910 .032 Within Groups .188 27 .007 Total .242 29