The need and necessity for more regulation and better

desire and need for such services is underscored and amplified by the variety
of social entities and groups who are actively seeking the increased efficiency
brought about by a shared economy. From the demand in highly populated urban
centers by drivers suffering from congestion and traffic problems,
environmental considerations about the urgency of pollution, or the need and
necessity for more regulation and better management of shared mobility services
while also considering the balance between sustainability of public
transportation and the convenience and ease of use of mobility sharing services
(Hansen, Grosse-Dunker, & Reichwald, 2009; Cohen & Winn, 2007; Rugman
& Verbeeke, 2000; Hart, 1997),  there
is a demand for additional research and governmental involvement in solving or
at least, rectifying some of the shortcomings or uncertainties of an economy
tailored for sustainability. In addition, there is an increased demand from
government agencies and corporate entities of well-suited and carefully through-out
and planned business model in a proposed shared economy. This new economic
model for business and governmental agencies needs to be based on
sustainability and efficiency centered on better utilization of “underutilized
assets from spaces to skills to stuff for monetary or non-monetary benefits”
(Botsman, 2013). Added to these demands is the increasing pressure placed on
infrastructure and the increasing costs associated with building and
maintenance of roads, bridges, highways and all other conceivable forms of
infrastructure that are under the strains of increased use and pressure and
need rebuilding or repair; as some of these problems can also be addressed by
better utilization of vehicles and transportation systems (Noland & Polak,

One proposed approach
for solving some of the outlying problems with the inefficiency of
transportation systems is based on the concept of optimal usage and
utilization. This approach realizes that a trade-off needs to be made between
under-utilization of vehicles and public transport that could cause
difficulties and hitches in smooth movement of vehicles in highly populated
urban centers that could cost valuable time and cause more pollution, and
overutilization of vehicles and transportation systems that not only places
unhealthy pressure on infrastructure and vehicles, but could cause discomfort
and inconveniences for users of such vehicles and transportation systems. The
answer to this dilemma is to be found in a new paradigm called the optimal
usage and utilization of infrastructure and vehicles with optimal occupation of
spaces in vehicles that does not lead to an abundance of low-occupancy or
over-occupied vehicles on the roads. The achievement of the first objective is
in line with the original 

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