The challenges, One can attest to this by

purpose of the chapter is to present the literature relevant to the topic. The
importance of the topic from an international perspective is presented. The
findings from other research studies are shared. The chapter highlights the key
concepts that are specific, relevant or related to illegal dumping. The
concepts are defined in order to give them meaning in the context of this
study. The defining of concepts is followed by literature review. Literature
review focuses on studies of similar nature and what they have revealed about
illegal dumping.

hypothesis of the study reads as : Illegal
dumping is a consequence of inadequate waste management education, awareness
and lack of policy enforcement by relevant authorities. The opening
statement of basic refuse removal national policy on provision of basic refuse
removal to indigent households acknowledges the shortcomings in the space of
solid service delivery. It highlights that 
that the system has had numerous challenges, One
can attest to this by observations on the increased number of illegal dumping
in different towns.

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concept of illegal dumping is related to solid waste management. Waste can be
defined as “unwanted material that the owner is ready to let go or throw
away” (2011:70). The concept of domestic solid waste is critical in the
study because the investigation site is in a village where a lot of dumping is
happening. There is about three dumping sites in a radius of a kilometre. The
source of waste under concern is suspected to be coming from surrounding
households. This narrows the focus to domestic solid waste management practices.

dumping in this study refers to the dumping of domestic waste  or refuse on the site that is not designated
for this purpose. Whereas the definition of illegal dumping is “discarding waste in
an improper or illegal manner, where it doesn’t belong” (
Waste management, at a broader level falls within the literature of sustainable
development. The issue of environment and way human interacts with it was first
registered as a global concern in 1972 at the United Nations Conference on the
Human Environment held in Stockholm, 
Treurnicht, (2011:416).

 One of the outcomes of the conference was the
adoption of the declaration on human environment. The declaration  identified principles that are key to the human
environment e.g. principle number two speaks about the natural resources (air,
water, flora, fauna) and emphasise that they must be well managed, (
whereas principle number six and seven touch on pollution. The two
principles discourages man made pollution 
on any type of environment especially the oceans and other forms of life.
The study of illegal dumping practices can be described as form of
environmental pollution which is directed to land  to be precise.

 According to the Bruntland Commission, sustainable
development is practice which is able to provide for the needs of present,
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own
needs” (Treurnicht 2011:414). The definition of sustainable development as a
concept can be further understood when the elements or aspects of sustainable
development are brought to light. The aspects of sustainable development are  social, economic, cultural, political, geographical
and ecological, Treurnicht (2011:414).  

the aspects of social, economic/financial and environmental sustainability are
flagged out as the most profound for development. In SA, definition of
sustainable development is understood to mean “development that does not
use up resources more quickly than they are replaced by natural processes or
new technology” (Treurnicht 2011:415).

from a study of illegal dumping by  Troschinet
& Mihelcic, (2009) There are 12 factors that influence waste management
success particularly sustainable recycling. 
The 12 elements identified by Troshchinet et al (2009:922) are
government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste
collection and segregation, household education, household economics, Municipal
Solid Waste Management administration (MSWM), MSWM personnel education, MSWM
plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and
land availability. The study conducted touched on elements on government
policy, waste collection and household education.

the SA context, there is a sound legislative framework that guides solid waste
management and the environmental management.  The over-arching act will be The environmental
management act: waste act 59 of 2008 (Republic of SA) states that the act
exists in order to makes provisions for management of waste. Another purpose of
this act is to prevent pollution and environmental degradation as well as to
provide for compliance and enforcement amongst other things. The National
Policy on Provision of Basic Refuse Removal to Indigent Households (BRR),
Government Notice  Notice
34385, 22 (June 2011) makes reference to 
makes The Waste Act and states that this act compels municipalities to
put in place Integrated Waste Management Plans (IWMPs). The IWMPs are part of
sustainable waste management. This then means that there is  legislative framework that guides local
government on waste management

of the key concepts that results from the over-arching policy (59 of 2008,
Republic of SA) is Sustainable waste management. This concept implemented
through the development of an Integrated waste management plan at a local
government level.  Each municipality is
required to have an integrated waste management plan. The latter consolidates
different strategies of waste management. The strategies of waste management
are better defined by hierarchy of waste management. The hierarchy is made up
of four components i.e.  Reduce (minimise
the amount of waste produced), Re-use ( Use materials more than once) Recycling
(use materials more than once) therefore concerned with  sorting, processing, and transportation of
solid waste materials, products or containers for the purpose of remanufacture
or reused and Disposal which is perceived as the worst or less desired option
for waste disposal. The study will use the hierarchy to reveal which of the
waste management strategies are being employed in the community under study.

analysis of solid waste management strategies implemented in the village under
concern with be scrutinised within the parameters of guiding principles and
concepts of solid waste management. An example will be the principles outlined
in the sustainable development  concept
where it is stated that Sustainable development requires that the generation of
waste is avoided, or where it cannot be avoided, that it is reduced, re-used,
recycled or recovered and only as a last resort treated and safely disposed ( It is for this reason
that hierachy of waste management will be used as a theoretical framework for
the study. Below are images that depicts waste management hierachy, the
difference between figure one and figure 2 is that one provides descriptions
about each waste management strategy.