The body (Marieb, 1995). In your own words, outline

The nervous system controls all of our senses; taste,touch,sight and
smell. Central nervous system is comprised of the brain and the spinal cord.
The peripheral nervous system consists of many nerves that are spread
throughout the body. The brain has three major parts; the cereberum, the
cerebellum and the medulla each in term have there own purpose and function.
The cereberum is the largest part of the brain this controls our senses,
thoughts and imagination. The next major part is the cerebellum this controls
our emotions, balance and our ability to learn new things. The third major part
is the medulla also referred to as the brain stem, it does a few things known
as involuntary actions, controlling our digestion, breathing and heart beat so
they automatically occur in our body. Peripheral nervous function is to receive
information; sensory nerves carry this information to the brain. Where as motor
nerves carry messages from the brain to the body. All nerves are made up of
neurons which are made up of three major parts; the nucleus this is the cells
body, the dendrites which take in the electric messages to cell bodies and
axons that take the message away from the cell body (Marieb, 1995).

 

 

 

In your own words, outline the main functions of the nervous system.

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On the diagram below label the key parts of the endocrine system

 

 

 

The reproductive glands enable you to go throw puberty. Oestrogen is
excreted from the ovaries and the testes in male’s releases testosterone.

 

The pancreas produces insulin, a chemical that helps you make energy
from the food we consume.

The adrenal glands make adrenaline which kicks in when they think we are
in danger.

 

The thyroid gland does a number of things, the most important being
regulating how fast your body uses the calories from the food we consume, which
is known as metabolism.

 

The pituitary gland produces growth hormones, making us grow big and
tall.

 

The glands of the endo system deliver chemicals known as hormones to
varies parts of the body. They regulate the processes of your body and make
sure all the hormones get where they need to go and on time. Each gland of the
endocrine system produces hormones and each one has a different job. The glands
are spread throughout the body; a lot of them are controlled by a little glad
at the base of your brain called the pituitary gland.

 

In your own words, outline the main functions of the endocrine system.

 

Part D (assessment criterion 3.4)

 

 

Cells
which have become differentiated and specialised to carry out
particular tasks are organised into tissue. Tissues working together to perform a larger function are organised into Organs. The heart is made up of four
tissue types; the Epithelium tissue, Connective tissue, Muscle tissue, Nervous tissue.
The muscle tissue supports the pumping of the blood in and out of the heart.
The connective tissue helps to sustain its shape and it also functions by
connecting the muscles to one another. This tissue makes the protective
covering which is called the pericardium. The epithelial tissue makes the
lining of the heart which enables the blood to move smoothly (Science, 2017).All these
tissues work together to make a functioning heart beat and pump blood around
the body enabling the cardiovascular system to work.

 

Using one of the named organs
in the table above, describe how it is formed from multiple tissues.

 

 

 

Organ

Composed of
tissue types:

Function of
tissue within organ:

Heart

Muscle tissue
 
 
Connective tissue
 
Nervous tissue
 

Contracts to pump blood though heart chambers
 
Is a component of the heart valves
 
Controls contraction of heart chambers

Liver

 
Epithelium tissue
 
 
Connective tissue
 
 
Muscle tissue                                 
 
 
Nervous tissue
 
 

 
Bile production,
Excretes waste products from the body and
absorbs
 
Encapsulates the liver protecting it and
holding it in place in the abdomen,
 
transport/diffusion
of nutrients and wastes, and energy storage
 
regulates insulin, controls
materialism ((Lautt, 2017)

Kidney

 
Epithelium tissue
 
 
 
 
Connective tissue
 
 
 
Muscle tissue
 
 
 
Nervous tissue
 

 
Supports connective tissue, allows passage of materials by diffusion
and filtration where protection is not important (Siumed.edu, 2017)
 
Provides reserves food fuel, insulates against heat loss, supports and
protects organs.
 
Contracts and is responsibly for
involuntary movement, transports waste (Depts.gpc.edu,
2017)
 
Regulates blood flow, communicates chemical
messages and signals with other body parts.
 
 
 
 
 

Uterus

 
Epithelium tissue
 
Connective tissue
 
Muscle tissue
 
Nervous tissue
 
 
 
 

 
Propels mucus by cilia action
 
Helps prevent overexpansion, protects
 
Contracts during labour
 
Direct blood flow to pelvis and external genitalia ((Dr Ananya Mandal, 2017)

 

Complete the table below. The first row has been completed for you as an
example

 

Part C (assessment criterion 3.3)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Include the 4 biological drawings
that you did in class

 

Part B (assessment criterion 3.2)

 

 

 

 

 

Cell differentiation works in varies stages of development. During cell
differentiation, the cell shape and size changes dramatically, as does it’s
ability to respond to signalling molecules. Signalling molecules are molecules
that bring messages to cells which help the cell know which functions and
processes to perform.
Signaling molecules transport a message to a cell receptor, this interprets the message through a signal transduction pathway. This
pathway translates the message enabling the cell to recognize and understand it;
this is what tells the cell its fate. Each type of cell that develops makes
tissues specific proteins which are found in that cell type, thus giving the
cell its unique structure and function (ScienceDaily, 2017).

Embryonic cells are specilised through a process called gene expression.
Gene expression is the specific combination of genes that are turned on or off,
this is what dictates the cells function. This process happens because of
certain signals in your body both inside and outside the cell.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Multipotent stem cells are partly differentiated however
they can differentiate more to produce cells that are even more specilised to
produce organs.
Two examples would be hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow, which can give
rise to all types of blood cell and replenish peripheral blood and Epidermal cells which will create the upper layers of skin.

 

Pluripotent stem cells are the descendants to totipotent
cells. They can differentiate into cells from any of these three germ layers of
the embryo; Endoderm line,Mesoderm line, Ectoderm line. Pluripotent cells are
restricted and cannot develop into placenta or umbilical cord tissue.

 

Totipotent stem cells are the top of the tree they have the ability to
differentiate into embryonic and extra embryonic cell types which can make a
complete viable organism. These cells are made when the fusion of an egg and
sperm cell. The totipotent cells are the fertilised egg and the cells produced
by the first few divisions of the fertilised egg and then up to
3 cell divisions after that through the cleavage process.

 

The ability to differentiate into specilised cell types and be able to
give rise to any mature cell type is called potency. Potency of the cell
specifies the differentiation potential (Stemcell.ny.gov, 2017).

 

 

Name a specific differentiated cell in your answer.

Write a short explanation of how totipotent embryonic stem cells become
specific cells.

 

 

Stem
cells are biological cells found in almost all multi-cellular organisms, divide
by the process of mitosis and become differentiated. During the process of an
organism growth, stem cells has the potential to either remain as a stem cell
or become another type of cell that’s has amore specialised function. There are
two types of stem cells; embryonic and adult stem cells both retain the ability
to renew themselves through a process called self-renewal (mitotic cell
division), this is essential, and serves an internal repair purpose.  Stem cells are unspecialised because they do
not have any tissue-specific structure enabling it to perform specialised
functions.