The block. The cylinder block is manufactured through casting

The skeleton of combustion engine consists of closed
cylinders inside a cylinder block fitted with a piston connected to a
crankshaft on one side while the other side is mounted with a fuel system. The
Fuel is burnt inside the cylinder to power the pistons. The power reaches the
wheels through crankshaft, flywheel and gearbox that make the power train
system. For this operation to take place, a number of components consisting of
thousands of parts are attached to the engine. We consider the major component
segments to compare with the electric car power train.


5.1 Main Components of IC engine

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Figure 7: IC Engine exploded view 43


5.1.1 Cylinder Block


Cylinder block is
the shell of the engine; the cylinder and piston is present inside the cylinder
within which the fuel is burnt. The main function of cylinder block is to
robustly withstand and facilitate the combustion of fuel. Inside the cylinder,
the fuel mixed with air is ignited making the cycle of compression and
expansion that drives the engine. The combustion of fuel brings extreme
temperature and pressure that requires the cylinder block to be able to with
stand harsh conditions. Cooling methods for the longevity of the continuous
process supports and extends the life of cylinder block. The cylinder block is
manufactured through casting process of cast iron.


5.1.2 Cylinder head


The cylinder head
is fixed at the upper side of the cylinder block. The function of a cylinder
head is to seal the cylinder block to avoid any leakage of air or fuel mixtures
from the cylinder and to act as a mount for the ignition system i.e. valve
train, spark plug or fuel injector. Cylinder head is manufactured by casting or
forging of cast iron or aluminum.


5.1.3 Piston


Piston is one of
the primary parts in the engine. Its function is to use the energy of expanding
gas in the cylinder to move itself in reciprocating motion. The piston is
connected to the crankshaft via a connecting rod to transfer its energy. The
reciprocating motion of piston creates an imbalance manifesting as vibration of
the engine that requires dampeners to absorb the vibration. Mechanical loss is
experienced during the transfer of linear motion in piston to rotational motion
in crankshaft.  As the energy supplied by
the piston is not continuous in nature, the rotation of the crankshaft is not
smooth. This brings the heavy flywheels into design for smoothening and
maintaining constant inertia to the crankshaft that stabilize the variable
irregular energy supply from the engine. Valves and camshaft system present
inside the cylinder head above the engine controls the supply of fuel and
removal of burnt fuel from the cylinder.


Pistons are made
from cast aluminum alloy. Component feature of the piston are the piston head
the top surface of the piston, piston pin bore a hole through the piston,
piston pin a hollow shaft that connects the piston and the connecting rod,
skirt the bottom portion of the piston, piston rings are the expandable split
ring acting as a seal between the cylinder and the piston, ring grooves the attachment
area for the piston rings and ring lands is the sealing surface of the piston


5.1.4 Connecting rod


The connecting
rod connects the piston and the crankshaft. It serves as the medium to transfer
the power from the reciprocating motion of piston to the crankshaft. The
connecting rod is made from steel and aluminum. Any mistake in the
manufacturing of connecting rod can cause a catastrophic engine failure. The
most common connecting rod used in nearly every type of engine is the cast rod,
made from molding of molten steel.


5.1.5 Crankshaft


The crankshaft is
connected to the connecting rod this is where the engine reciprocating motion
of piston is converted to rotatory motion and transferred to the flywheel. The
engine’s crankshaft is usually made of very heavy cast iron. The crankshaft’s
material has to be very strong to withstand the everlasting stress it receives
from the constant push and pull from the pistons.


5.1.6 Camshaft


The function of
camshaft is to open and close the inlet and exhaust valves of the engine at
synchronized timing to make the engine run itself smoothly. The perfection in
timing is essential to obtain maximum power and efficiency. The camshaft also drives
the distributor to synchronize spark ignition. Camshafts are usually connected
with the engine rotation i.e. the rotation of the crankshaft through a set of
gears or belt drives. It contains lobes that activate the valve train. In many
cases, 2 camshafts are present in the engine, one controls the inlet valves and
the other controls the exhaust valves. The production of camshaft is by forging
process usually made out of one piece of steel. Each cylinder of the engine
will be associated with 2 lobes of the camshaft for the inlet and exhaust
valves. The camshaft additionally has one extra lobe for the fuel pump. The
camshaft operates the lifters through its lobes; the lifters operate the rest
of the valve train. 45



5.1.7 Flywheel


The crankshaft is
attached to the flywheel. The function of flywheel is to provide an inertial
mass to store the rotational energy. It is essential as the engine only
delivers power in power strokes and during the remaining time, the rotation is
carried over by the flywheel. Flywheels assist to provide a smooth power
delivery as output. The rotational inertia of the flywheel facilitates a slower
minimum unloaded speed. The flywheel also balances the system by its weight and
rotation. The clutch or the torque converter is attached to the flywheel where
the power is further transferred to the wheels. The flywheel is manufactured
through casting process.


5.1.8 Starter motor


The function of
starter motor is to start the engine by powering the flywheel to rotate. Electric
power from battery powers the rotation until the combustion sequence takes over
and runs the engine. The engine needs the initial push from the starter motor
to begin its combustion process after which the starter motor is disengaged
leaving the engine to run by itself. 46


5.1.9 Spark plugs & Fuel injector


A spark plug is a
device fit into the top of the cylinder head of petrol engine. The fuel
injector is a device fit into the top of cylinder head of a diesel engine.  The function of the spark plug and the fuel
injector is to initiate combustion. The spark plug ignites the air-fuel mixture
inside the petrol engine cylinder through an electrical spark by the electrical
energy supplied to it. Spark plugs consist of an insulated electrode connected
to the ignition coil. 47 The air-fuel mixture of petrol engines used to be
governed by a carburetor. The1980s marked the phase-out of carburetors paving
the way for fuel injector results in better efficiency of combustion while
reducing toxic emissions. Fuel injection in petrol engines is commonly carried
out through Multi Point Fuel Injection (MPFI). The MPFI is an advanced version
of carburetor. The fuel injectors vaporize the fuel and mix it with air and
sent to the cylinder, each cylinder is treated individually by the system. A
computerized system made from microcontroller does the mechanical job of
carburetor electronically making it extremely precise and efficient by metering
and mixing the fuel in the right ratios. 48



Diesel engines
i.e. Compression ignition engines consists of a fuel injector instead of a
spark plug. The fuel injection is done by a system that consists of feed pump, fuel
filter, fuel injection pump, high-pressure pipe and injection nozzle. The feed
pump sucks the fuel from the tank, the fuel is filtered through the fuel filter
and is sent to the fuel injection pump pressurizes the fuel to high pressure
that is sent to the injection nozzle through the high pressure pipe. The
injection nozzle injects the fuel into the cylinder that already contains
heated compressed air and the combustion process is started. 49


5.1.10 Engine Control system


Post the
emissions laws that increasingly became stricter, it became essential to
implement electronic systems into the car to regulate the air fuel mixture to
control the engine for improved efficiency and produce lesser emissions. The
Engine Control Unit (ECU) is a powerful computer inside the car to control the
engine. The ECU obtains the required information of the status of the car from
the sensors. The ECU monitors the system using the information from the sensors
and controls the inputs to the system, managing various parameters such as the
emissions and fuel economy of the engine. The ECU decides on the best spark
timing and duration of opening of fuel injector etc. 50


5.1.11 Exhaust system


The exhaust
system is a crucial element governing the emission levels of the internal
combustion engine. The exhaust system consists of the exhaust manifold,
turbocharger (an optional component to help increase the inlet pressure of the
engine), catalytic converter and silencer. The exhaust manifold is made of cast
iron or stainless steel. The function of exhaust manifold is to transfer the
exhaust gas from the multiple cylinders of the engine to the turbocharger or to
the exhaust pipe. The turbocharger is a turbine placed along the exhaust gas
with a function to convert the pressure of engine exhaust gas into mechanical
energy through the rotation of the turbine, this turbine further drives the
compressor connected to the inlet manifold to increase the pressure of the
inlet gases that improves engine performance. The turbocharger is of 2 types
axial and radial flow. In the axial-flow type, flow through the turbine is in
the axial direction. In radial-flow type, gas inflow is directed into the
center from outside. The radial-flow turbine is the most commonly used type in
cars. 51 Post the turbo charger the exhaust gas is sent through a catalytic
converter present inside the silencer. A catalytic converter is made of a
stainless-steel casing that houses a metallic or ceramic substrate. This
substrate has a number of fine channels running along its length. The surface
of the substrate is coated with precious metals such as platinum, palladium and
rhodium. It is these precious metals that are the actual catalysts initiating
the chemical reactions that conversation of carbon monoxide into carbon
dioxide, nitrogen oxides into nitrogen and oxygen, hydrocarbons into carbon
dioxide and water, the nitrogen oxides back into nitrogen and oxygen. 52


5.1.12 Cooling & lubricating system


The combustion
engine consist of many moving parts, due to continuous movement of metallic
parts over each other, the parts are subjected to intense wearing and
generation of heat from friction. The engine also produces enormous heat from
combustion (upto 1600 °C).

For the smooth operation of engine these parts has to be cooled and lubricated.

The lubricating and cooling mechanism is designed to supply lubricating oil to
the rubbing surfaces of an engine at correct pressure and temperature.


The above parts
and components are the key part categories of the IC engine. These parts are
supported by a number of minor parts for the functioning of the engine. The
suppliers of the above parts are again segmented based on their expertise.

These suppliers hold the dominant expertise in metal manufacturing techniques
of casting, molding, forming, surface treatment and also case specific
expertise in electronics and materials. We view the electric car part
components to compare and analyze which areas the suppliers of the above parts
are impacted.