The as the post and lintel technique which is

The majority of  Greek temples were oblong in shape,
approximately twice as long as they were wide. A typical floor plan
incorporated a cella, which was an inner shrine typically housing a statue of a
figure of whom the temple was built to dedicate, or one or more antechambers which
contained storage for equipment or offerings  . There then was a surrounding outer colonnade
of columns also known as the peristyle. The porch or ante-room is called
pronaos, which was usually open leaving the side walls terminating in
rectangular pilasters called antae. When the porch had columns, these could
firstly be between the antae, which is known as in antis or secondly in front
of them in various arrangements which is known as prostyle. When there was a
division behind the cella, it could either be an adyton (an inner sanctuary
reached from the cella) or an opisthodomos (an open porch mirroring the
pronaos). The outer flank of columns or colonnades is also known as the pteron (Robertson,
2004, p. 39)














The Roman
temple was a combination of the Hellenistic style developed in Greece alongside
additional further developed Roman characteristics. The most noteworthy of
these characteristics being the podium on which the temples were placed. (Stierlin,
2002, pp. 19-20).
The Roman temple also included an inner cella surrounded by columns, however it
furthermore included an additional stepped entrance and columned porch, the striking
focal point of the temple in contrast to the Greek temple with all four sides
of equal importance. (Cartwright, 2013). There were also
circular temple plans, the most famous example of which being the Pantheon (113-125
AD). The Pantheon consists of two fundamental parts, the outside porch,
suggesting a more Greek influence, and the circular main building, suggesting a
more Roman influence due to its reminiscence of Roman baths. Greek temples were
built as pieces of art to give pleasure to the gods as worshiping the gods was
a major element of Ancient Greek civilisation. The Romans however, alongside
building temples dedicated to the gods, built temples as public dwellings for
social gathering. (Freeman, 2004)

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The materiality of Greek temples was determined by the
local raw materials available. There were few forests in Ancient Greece,
however they possessed a plentiful supply of limestone. The earliest example of
Greek trabeated construction, also known as the post and lintel technique which
is based off the principle of vertical uprights (columns or posts) supporting
horizontal beans (lintels) was made from timber and clay and later applied to
stone. (
Early 8th century BCE wood was used for the columns and the entablature,
alongside mudbrick walls and thatched or terracotta roofs. From the late 7th
century BCE temples were beginning to be constructed using the more durable,
more widely accessible and workable stone masonry. The Temple of Hera at
Olympia (early 6th century BCE) is a clear example of a structure
constructed of a combination of wood, mudbrick and stone. The most favourable form
of masonry by the Greeks was limestone (often called poros) and marble in
particular pure white marble. (Cartwright, 2013).


Following this, the Ancient Romans drew on many of the
advances made by the Greeks. However is was not until during the reign of
Augustus that the city (Rome) was transformed from brick to marble.  (Freeman, 2004, p. 517) Many Roman temples
were constructed of solid blocks of stone and like the Greeks, and they also favoured
limestone and marble. The first all marble building was the Temple of Jupiter
Stator in Rome. (146 BCE) Clemente Marconi has argued “Probably the most
important Roman contribution to building technology was the systematic use of
concrete, which had a significant impact on architectural design.” The
discovery and later development of concrete by the late 3rd century
BCE radically changed the construction of buildings and also the use of stones.
The reasoning behind the success of the Roman concrete ahead of earlier attempts
is due to the inclusion of a volcanic ash called pozzolana. This fine volcanic ash
is a mineral containing silica and alumina. When mixed with lime and burned it
creates a cement that hardened under water as well as in the air. It also
creates a cement that is much stronger and adhesive than anything previous. When
the arch was innovated and incorporated into concrete construction, the
resulting large scale vaulted structures can 
be considered as one of the most pronounced Roman contributions to
building materials and technology. (Marconi, 2015, pp. 258-260)



















In the words of Clemente
Marconi, “Given the simple technology possessed by the ancient Greeks, every
colonnaded temple represented a remarkable victory for quarrymen and haulers.” (Marconi,
2015, p. 250)
The Greeks used a large range of advanced
technologies to construct their temples. They used different kinds of cranes,
pulleys, winches and capstan hoists along with block and tackle systems which
could lift huge stones with minimal effort. Archimedes, the ancient Greek
inventor and engineer designed a winch using a gearbox with which he moved the
heaviest loads using only one hand.