Rowman mentions how masturbation is a sin and unnatural,




Rowman &
Littlefield publisher,1997.

The Philosophy of
Sex: Contemporary Readings.

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Inclusion, that masturbation is considered a sexual act because
certain categories it falls under and it’s also illegal and each country and states
have different laws against masturbation.The bible also mentions how masturbation
is a sin and unnatural, and people should not even think about impure thoughts.These
are the reasons why masturbation is unnatural, illegal, and a sexual act.  That is even mentioned some parts of the Bible,
and it is considered a sin. Philosophers follow these rules to make their evaluation
if it’s moral or not and why is counted as a sexual act.These rules make it
easier to put certain sexual acts into categories and masturbation is put into
one of those categories and its also considered illegal, unnatural, and a
sexual act.

Masturbation is considered a sexual act, and it considered morally
wrong and considered natural.Masturbation follows under certain categories of being
natural, it’s not abnormal sexual activity and it doesn’t disrupt the natural
aspects of the sexual activity, the man or women, have a desire for something
but, they decide to pleasure themselves or someone. The reason why masturbation
is considered sexual is that of people behavior and people are described to act
like animals when people cannot control their bodies. Humans are also known to
act out of their impulses they have for their sexual desires that they have.Peoples
emotions also play a major role, because emotions can take over persons mind
and body.  It is not considered a perversion
because of all the rules that the natural laws follow, and it doesn’t fall and the
categories that It says to make it a perversion. also part of a personal behaves
as well, and it is a natural feeling. It doesn’t follow any of the rules to
being unnatural because it is not abnormal. Philosophers had talked about how certain
sexual activities are dangerous masturbation does not fall under that category,
for it to unnatural. Masturbation is also considered morally wrong because philosophers
had evaluated masturbation and it fell under the criteria that it is morally
wrong, but people are trying to figure out what category to put masturbation
under. There are several discussions why it is immoral, and why people have
trouble to categorize it. Also, it can be seen as morally wrong just because
the type of sexual activity, but this rule doesn’t apply to a married couple,
its wrong because the rule follows homosexual males, and this is why masturbation
is under the unnatural category because this disrupts the natural aspect of the
sexual activity and also considered immoral. This is why masturbation is
considered unnatural.  Masturbations is considered
illegal there are several laws against the sexual activity and it’s just wrong
for a person to do this. Each law is different in every state and has different
punishments for committing masturbation, is illegal. Masturbation also goes
against what the bible says and it is a sin to even think about impure thoughts,
and this sexual act is stated in the bible.


The man and woman should always consent, to make the act
moral, legal, and sufficient. Couples that are married should give consent as
well, and the couple had made an agreement with one another, and also
understand with one another. Consent can be given in many different ways verbal
and body language. Men and women can also give consent freely, but it’s moral
but not sufficient. There are also dangers to consensual activities, and sometimes
the women are put into situations; that they don’t want to be in. Consent should
always be given, to make it moral.

There is always a disagreement on how consent is given and
there also certain situations that people are put in good or bad decisions.Some
people also get offers or threats if they want a good grade or a raise a work,
so the boss or teacher makes them an offer or a threat, so the female can get a
good grade and keep and get more money for her job. This will put pressure on
the female to make a decision to keep her job or to make a good grade in the
class, the female will also have to give consent as well. The decisions that the
female make have to make the act moral and sufficient if she doesn’t consent it
wouldn’t be moral and it would be insufficient. In some relationships that a
sexual act can be consensual but it also can be dangerous. Some women might consent
so she will not be rejected by the man, and she wants to please him.There are
many reasons why the women will consent, she is afraid that the man might leave
her.Some women might consent under pressure from her friends so she doesn’t
feel left out, and her friends will appreciate her, and this can be dangerous
for the woman. The act would be considered moral but not sufficient because the
woman did not consent. If the woman feels like she needs to consent and she doesn’t
want to; the women need to tell the man that she doesn’t want to; the act would
be moral but not sufficient.The woman should consent because they want to, not
because they have to. These situations are good examples for letting the man
and woman the dangers of consensual sexual activities.

If one did not give consent the outlook will completely
change and if one consents the other one doesn’t, it would be morally wrong; because
one did not give consent.  This can cause
a problem between with consenting because it can cause legal trouble and many
more problems. For a person to make sure that consent was given, they several
rules to follow to make sure the act was moral and considered sufficient, these
rules need to be followed. If the couple does follow the rules and analyze them
to make sure that the consent was present, moral and legal if so then consent
was present; sufficient and necessary. If the rules don’t
make sure consent was not present and then it would not be moral, legal, then it would fall under the category
that insufficient and not necessary.

            The most moral way of consent is
between a married couple. The couple had known each other for a long time, but content
still needs to be present. Consent can be presented in a few different ways
verbal, and body language. This form of consent is the most sufficient and
moral way to give consent. The married couple understands each other and comes
to agree with one another. If the sexual act is considered natural than its
also considered moral, and then consent has been present for the couple; even though
if the couple is married.consent is a big part in a marriage, were the man and
woman can feel comfortable and be respected. Consent can also change the
couples way a looking at the relationship as well. Consent will actually be
given and this means it is legal and sufficient. When a couple is married
sometimes the husband and wife want to give the significant other what they
want, and the husband and wife feel like have to for the other, because they
want to and this a good for consent to be legal and moral.

            Two adults can be put into a situation and consent would be freely given at any time and both
adults could have given consent before
and it would be necessary and not be sufficient
for consent to be present in this situation. Strangers to met a couple hours before at the bar and had a great night and both the
couple could not remember what happen and this can cause a problem with
consent. This situation would be one and issue with consent because
either adult could not consent because both adults were not sober. The adults
might have given it before and the adults could have just forgotten that they
both give consent and this is not sufficient way of giving consent.  They man or women can go back and make allegations against another person because they cannot remember what happened the
night before. Therefore, freely given
consent is not sufficient .adults had to be able to consent, and able to make
the right choices, and to be safe. The
man and the women would not have made the best choice because they could not
give consent. This is dangerous because
the consent was insufficient and both
people could not remember the events that happened the night before. Both
people are putting their lives at risk and not being safe, and meeting up with
random people at the bar. This situation is not
for people to make the decision to consent and is also insufficient and not

7.         During any sexual act or activity, there always need to be consent moral. There are
several issues that involve consent. There is always the discussion
about consent is sufficient and necessary in a sexual act. There always need to
be consent between the man and the women before any sexual activity begins. Consent can be any verbal
communication or body language from either person. The man or the women can
also give consent freely. The act can be considered moral has several rules to
follow. The rules are is the act natural, and is it legal, and it is also
considered safe. Consent also has to have two adults
that are able to consent, and the feeling
is mutual. There are some dangers to consensus sexual activities as well.  I
believe Consent must be given before any
activity begins, and should be sufficient and moral.

Group C

There are many reasons why optimism and pessimism are
different ways. They’re both based on different views of philosophers, one focused
on the objectification of a person; and the optimist care about the sexual
desire and impulses that a person has to another person. There are also different
views whats moral and whats immoral based on the sexual act or activity. Each
group can make their own judgments on what they find acceptable to them.
Pessimist whats people to feel ashamed of their bodies and optimist are also focused
on having more loving relationships with a man and woman. Both Pessimist and
optimist have their different views and both a different from one another.
Sexual optimist and pessimists both look at judge what acts they find
acceptable, and what is good or bad, moral or immoral. Each group has their own
opinion because one group says its bad that a person can control their body.
The other group talks about a how people act out on an impulse, and it a
natural reaction. These two groups make a judgment and decided if the act or
activity is moral or not.

A metaphysical sexual pessimism thinks people should feel
ashamed for what the had done. A sexual activity should be just for
reproduction, and the only time it is fine is when a man or a woman is married.
There is also the loss of power and control and this is bad. Most of the time
the partners will lie and deceive the other person. The couple is supposed to seduce
on another for their pleasure. Sexual pessimists focus on objectifying an
object or a person for their own pleasure in the middle of a sexual act. A person
behavior completely changes when they have a desire for another person. One of
the partners will lie to get the results that they want when it comes to a
particular thing that they want. Women will dress up and put makeup on to
attract a male. Men and women think that they cant be themselves when they go
out they want to make themselves more appealing to the other person. It’s
common for men to look at women as a mere object and not a person.Pessimism
thinks that a person should have control of their bodies all the time if they cant
control their bodies its bad; the person was in the wrong. It’s not acceptable
for a man and women who cant have complete control of their bodies, this
against the pessimism rules and not considered a person if they cant control
their bodies.
One pessimist makes a point that both people are considered a tool, to seek
both of their pleasures during the sexual activity and that’s it with making a
human an object for one person’s pleasure. When a person is in the moment, it
can be hard to control their bodies and stop, because both people are into each
other and attracted to another as well. When this happens both people are in
their most vulnerable states and can be talked about anything that their
partners want them to do.

 A sexual optimism is bringing
two people together in a sexual way or not.The sexual optimists are how humans
can control their impulses and their desires. The people base it on judgment on
what sexual act and activity are good or bad. The optimist also look is the
sexual act moral or not. Humans are described as for being animals like when
they act to their impulses and cannot control themselves. The optimism also
says there can be dangers to have sex like the partner can physically harm themselves,
can be a connection of bonding, agreements of being moral or immoral. There are
moral reasons, that the husband or wife have to feel obligated to please their
spouse. The act or activity will be considered permissible, or it could also be
considered wrong and immoral.Sexual optimist also thinks that pleasure can
bring happiness, there are certain reasonings that optimist finds whats wrong
with the sexual act or activity and blame it on how people react in the
situation. An optimist also discusses how people objectify objects that are
close to them or people.There are more successful relationships because couples
are in a deeply committed relationship; have an emotional connection as well.
The man and woman both have the job to please and make their partner happy. The
wife and husband will also have the same value and see eye to eye and agree with
their decision, and it would be moral.

2.         Everybody
has a different view on how sexual acts should be looked
and does everybody think the activity is moral or not. People make their choices on how their body reacts, this
is a normal reaction when one person is attracted to another. When two people
love one another they have a desire for each other, and they want to be with
that person. The desire for one another can actually lead to a sexual desire,
and this can be a good thing for the couple’s relationship.  Also, how humans define what is moral and
what is not moral, can be questioned. People will also have their own opinion
about what wrong and right, and judgments about certain acts and activities;
and what acceptable. Sexual metaphysics also have to categories that acts and activities
go under and they are sexual pessimist and optimists.


There are certain laws to follow with certain sexual
activities, and it doesn’t matter what the activity is the couple always have
to give consent; if they don’t legal issues can be present in that person’s
life. People can be put into a different situation, and where one thing leads
to another and the strangers have consented freely to one another.This form of
consent Is moral but not sufficient. There is a married couple that feels like
they have to sleep with there spouse because the wife or husband feels like it’s
their duty. This form of consent is legal and moral.There are some forms of
consent that is immoral and illegal that rape is one where one person does not give
consent, this act is illegal and immoral. There is a different way to evaluate
a sexual act, and philosopher can use these tool to help them in evaluations,
no more can be added.

People also have to consider if the sexual act is natural or
not, there are certain rules to follow to consider the act natural or not. A
perversion is considered abnormal sexual fetish that people are into; and how
people consider what is natural and unnatural. An unnatural is an abnormal sexual
desire that one seeks from another person. Philosophers also use the tools to
help them decide what natural and unnatural from their point of view.What makes
a sexual act moral is that the two adults have consented before the act or the
activity had started. Sexual pleasure is also considered natural if the couple has
consented earlier in the night, is considered natural. Homosexuality is considered
unnatural because it’s not considered normal to the rules of the natural laws. The
human body and how they behave around other people, and what they consider what
natural or not. People sometimes just can’t control their bodies and their emotions,
and is this natural or unnatural, it depends on what the act is and then it can
be put in the category of being natural or unnatural, and it also the rules and
how God intended humans to be.

There are many reasons why people argue about pragmatic considerations
for any sexual activities and many rules to follow. People also have to think
about all the dangers that come with a sexual relationship, and have to be careful.How
people view whats good or whats bad for a sexual act and activities that they
are involved in. people can damage their bodies in certain sexual acts that can
be very dangerous for the man and women. The couple also has to think if the actions
and activities are moral or nonmoral and the couple will have to make a decision.
People are also putting their self at risk for getting a disease, and this act
would be considered nonmoral because of its bad. There are certain activities that
are considered bad and nonmoral because of certain fetishes that people are
into. These acts are considered immoral because they are putting their lives at

is a lot of immoral concepts of many sexual activities
that are considered really bad. A spouse cheating on them with another partner,
that is considered immoral because is not with that person’s husband or wife
and it just considered bad. Even thinking about immoral activity and is also considered
bad; a person should think inappropriate thoughts. There are many reasons why
certain activities considered moral or immoral. Philosophers categorize activities
into two groups some activities are just absolutely bad compared to other activities.
There are certain tools that philosophers use to help them make their decision
on how to categorize certain activities. Philosophers have to decide if the
certain acts and activities are moral not, they have certain tools to help them
figure how to evaluate and put them in the right category that the sexual act belongs
in.The sexual pleasure is described as a person would be hungry for food.Philosophers
would ask people if eating is a nonmoral activity that humans do all the time
do all the time. Sexual activities are looked at the same way to figure out if
the views are moral or not. A sexual act can be pleasurable for both the man
and the women, but still can be very wrong; because of circumstance that man
and women agreed on. Like a spouse cheating on their partner, which is very
wrong and morally wrong. There are people who are very inexperienced and it’s
not considered moral because of the situation they were in. There are certain
acts that are not bad at all an so they are put in the moral category because
they act was considered to be good and not bad. There are several scientific
studies that prove that moral and nonmoral views are very similar and how
people would consider bad or good. People also have to make their own judgment
and have to figure out on their own what is morally right and what is morally

 Everybody has a different view on what moral
and what’s not moral, and what is considered natural and legal. Philosophers used different views and evaluate their
hypothesis what they think is moral or immoral. People think that a moral act is a
right way and its legal as well. There are some acts that are considered
horribly wrong and immoral and this bad
for the people to consider it. A married
couple that has a sexual relationship is
considered moral because there is nothing
wrong with a married couple having a relationship. There are some types of sexual
activities that are bad and an immoral woman selling their bodies for sexual
pleasure is bad and immoral. Friends with benefits are not morally wrong, it is acceptable and if consent was given by
both people; it is moral.