resultsSoil bulk density in CR and GG was significantly extra than that in TS (table 1). Soil water content material and pH have been not notably affected by healing. Exchangeable Ca turned into higher in TS than in CR, however that during GG and ZT turned into no longer drastically extended. Exchangeable Mg changed into higher in TS and GG than in CR and ZG. For the cropland, the concentration changed into in fig 1. After 16 years of recovery, soil C degree became greater than doubled in TS, and that in GG and ZG become multiplied by way of approximately 50% relative to CR. Soil overall NITROGEN attention in GG turned into not drastically different from CR, but that in TS and ZG become increased by using ninety three% and 55% relative to the extent in CR. soil overall PHOSPHORUS attention in GG changed into not modified following the conversion from CR to ZG, however that in TS and ZG had been considerably extended (Fig.1a). The styles of C:N and C:P ratios had been similar with the values higher in TS (11.49 ± 0.05 for C:N, 41.82 ± 2.05 for C:P) and GG (12.65 ± 0.84 for C:N, 37.70 ± 2.forty for C:P) than those in CR (9.eighty five ± zero.37 for C:N, 27.29 ± 2.fifty three for C:P) and ZG (9.90 ± 0.04 for C:N, 31.04 ± zero.fifty one for C:P) (Fig. 1b). N:P ratio was most effective considerably elevated in TS (3.sixty four ± 0.16) relative to CR (2.77 ± 0.27).each MBC and MBN concentrations have been drastically expanded in TS and GG through 124% and eighty two%, respectively,(Fig. 2). The MBC:MBN ratio changed into considerably improved after cropland abandonment and was highest in TS, intermediate in GG and ZG (Fig. three). the proportion of soil C saved in MBC become no longer substantially altered by way of agricultural abandonment on the grounds that there has been no sizable distinction in MBC:soil C ratio among CR and both of the other three treatments, but the ratio was substantially decrease in ZG than in GG (Fig. 2b). the percentage of soil N stored in MBN turned into simplest accelerated drastically in GG relative to CR.The abundance (expressed in nmol g1 soil) of overall PLFAs changed into substantially elevated by using fifty five-69% following agricultural abandonment. there was no tremendous distinction in overall PLFAs most of the 3 restoration strategies (Fig. 4). The relative abundance (i.e., the ratio of a given group of PLFAs to overall PLFAs expressed as percentage) became now not appreciably altered by recovery for general bacteria, Gram-bad bacteria and actinomycete (Fig. 5). The relative abundance of Gram-wonderful bacteria became reduced, but that of AMF became elevated in GG relative to CR. both the relative abundance of fungal PLFAs (Fig. S1) and F:B ratio (Fig. 6) had been drastically accelerated following agricultural abandonment. GP:GN ratio became notably decrease in GG than in CR, but the ratio in TS and ZG turned into just like CR (Fig. 7). in step with MRPP check, the soil microbial community profile turned into appreciably altered following agricultural abandonment (table 2).Soil C, total NITROGEN, overall PHOSPHORUS, MBC, MBN, and MBC:MBN were significantly correlated with total PLFAs, bacterial PLFAs, Fungal PLFAs and Gram-high quality bacterial PLFAs (desk three). The above soil properties except total NITROGEN have been additionally significantly correlated with actinomycete PLFAs. AMF PLFAs turned into simplest significantly associated with C:N ratio.