Question human infant will learn words or facial expressions

Question #1There are many instances in Through a Window that showed me how alike chimpanzees and humans really are. For example, on page fifteen, Goodall talks about Lucy. Lucy is a chimpanzee that is trained as if she were a human. She is able to identify pictures and call them by their names, such as “blue” and “dog”. Although Lucy could not verbally say these words, she used American Sign Language, which I think is even more impressive! Chimpanzees are just like babies in this way, they soak up so much information and are able to apply it within their own life. Goodall compares humans and chimpanzees on page sixteen, showing how the anatomy of both brains are very similar, “There are equally striking similarities between humans and chimpanzees in the anatomy and wiring of the brain and nervous system, and – although many scientists have been reluctant to admit this – in social behavior, intellectual abilities and emotions.”   It is also proven that chimpanzees can catch human viruses and diseases, unlike other non-human animals. Another example of how humans and chimpanzees are alike was shown when Goodall talked about the baby chimps. Infant chimps are in need of the same things as human infants, “And one cannot watch chimpanzee infants for long without realizing that they have the same emotional need for affection and reassurance as human children.” (Goodall, page 19).  Not only do baby chimpanzees need love and affection like humans, they also learn by imitation. A human infant will learn words or facial expressions from watching the people around him or her, which is why parents are so careful about what they are saying! Likewise, baby chimps will also learn by imitation. For example, on page twenty-three, Goodall talks about an older chimp, Washoe, who had learned how to use sign language from a human. Washoe was able to teach younger chimps, Loulis in particular, how to sign through imitation. Loulis was never given lessons from a human, but somehow picked up on many of the signs. “Yet, by the time he was eight years old he had made fifty-eight signs in their correct contexts.” (page 23). More examples of how chimpanzees and humans are similar came from the research done by Goodall in Gombe. On page fifty-six, Goodall talks about an incident where Flo protected her son even though she was old and frail. Flo protected her son as he cried out from across the forest. Although there was not much she could do while her son was being attacked, she cared for him afterward until his was healthy again. “Not until his injury had healed did he leave her and move back into adult male society with all its tensions and dangers, its excitement and exhilaration.” (page 56). This reminded me of children who live in the basement of their mother’s house until they can get back on their feet after college or after losing their job. No matter what, a mother will care for their child until they are able to do it on their own. Likewise, in the human culture a “wing man” will always care and take care of their best friend. Faben played a wingman to Figan as shown on page sixty-five, “Faben helped to keep an eye on the current lady friend when Figan was momentarily busy elsewhere.” (page 65). They also shared many things, such as meat and sexual possessions. This is comparative to humans in a way of a “wing man” at the bar, they share drinks and even keep an eye on girls for one another. Lastly, I realized humans and chimps were alike when Goodall talked about how adolescent chimpanzees select an adult male as his “hero”.  Young chimps pick a certain male to watch and imitate, as if they are trying to be like them when they grow up. “He is attentive to all of them, but it is his hero whom he watches most closely, and with whom he is most likely to travel when he leaves his family.” (page 66).  This correlates to human culture when young boys watch their favorite athlete, celebrity or even family member. Young boys are always watching older men to learn, but they often choose a certain man in hopes of being just like him.  There were a couple of events that led me to believe chimpanzees are not like humans, for example of page ninety-four, Goodall explains how brother and sister chimps may mate during their periods of swelling. I do not think this is the same in human culture. Also, Goodall shows a picture of an infant who interferes with two chimps mating in the first set of pictures. I don’t believe that this really happens with human infants. Overall, Goodall has shown me that chimpanzees are very similar to humans throughout this reading! Question #2The relationships between mothers and daughters and mothers and sons are very different. For one, the relationship between a mother and her son is much shorter than the relationship between a mother and her daughter. A young male must prove his dominance in the community early, which means leaving the security of his mother’s arms earlier than a young female would. A young female can learn all of her tasks within the community from her mother, whereas the young male must go out on his own to learn his way, “But the initial break with the mother and the first journeys with the adult males can not only come much earlier for the young male than for the female, but are of far greater significance. For it is here that he must learn many of the skills that he will need as an adult.” (page 131). A young female stays with her mother for a longer period of time because she is able to watch and learn her duties from her mother, “She can learn most of what she needs to know for a successful adult life whilst remaining safely in her family setting.” (page 137). A mother has the same love for both her son and daughter, but their relationships are different in length and in interactions. Question #3In chapter thirteen, Goodall describes the struggles that Goblin endured in order to achieve success in the hierarchy. Goblin encountered many setbacks along the way, but the one thing that led him to success was his persistence. Goblin may have been chased off by an older chimp, but that didn’t stop him, he was soon back at it again. Goblin continued to challenge older chimpanzees that were bigger and stronger than him. One by one, he conquered all of the females in the community, then went on to challenging the males. He did not win all of these battles the first time, in fact, he was seriously injured in some of them, “Goblin was very badly wounded during the fight, sustaining a deep gash in his thigh which was still bleeding heavily an hour later.” (page 168). However, Goblin didn’t let these things stop him, he continued to work at conquering the other males in the community, which he eventually did. His persistence led him to the top of the hierarchy, “Goblin, like Mike, Goliath and Figan before him, showed, in super-abundance, courage and persistence – the will to get to the top and to stay there despite setbacks.” (page 172).  Goodall believes that his mother, Melissa, may have had an impact on his success, “When Goblin got into difficulties during his early attempts to walk and climb, his mother usually left him to get himself out of trouble, even when he whimpered – unless he was really stuck in which case she quickly retrieved him.” (page 172). Her tough love showed Goblin that he could do things on his own as long as he kept working at it.  I think it is important, in order for a child to be successful, a mother cannot do everything for them, they must show tough love. Just as Melissa did, a mother must allow their child to suffer to a certain extent, letting them learn from their mistakes, which helped Goblin reach alpha male after many setbacks. Question #4Pom and Fifi had very different childhoods, in comparison to Fifi’s childhood, Pom’s was bleak. This was a result of many different things, including the personalities of Passion and Flo. According to Goodall, on page thirty-nine, Flo was a highly competent mother. She was loving, playful and protective, whereas Passion was an intolerant, cold mother who rarely played with Pom. And unlike Fifi, Pom did not have any other siblings to play with, making her childhood even more bare. Flo and Passion also differed greatly in the social aspect of life. Flo was a social butterfly and had friendly, relaxed relationships with the adult males among Gombe. She was a top female in the community.  In comparison, Passion was a loner. She had no female companions and her relationships with the males were tense. These relationships and interactions directly affected the mother-daughter relationship between both Flo and Fifi and Passion and Pom. For example, Fifi thrived from her mom’s personality, “In this social environment, Fifi became a self-confident and assertive child.” (page 39). On the other hand, Pom did not, “She had a difficult time during her early months, and she became an anxious and clinging child, always fearful that her mother would go off and leave her behind.” (page 39). Question #5 I think that chimpanzees do experience love, but it may be a little bit different than the way humans experience love. I think that a mother chimpanzee will show the same type of love to her child that a human mother would. For example, on page thirty-five Flo shows how much she loves her child. Even though she knows that Flint was the one who started pestering Crease, a baboon, she still protected her baby when Crease leapt at Flint, “Flo sprang to action. Sticking her few remaining moth-eaten hairs on end she charged at Crease, uttering fierce waa-barks of threat. And Crease fled!” (page 35).  Just like my mother would, Flo defended her baby regardless of the circumstances. However, I do not think that chimpanzees experience love with their mates the same way humans do. On page seventy, Curt explained how he witnessed Faben mating with Gig and once Figan noticed this, he stomped Faben away and began to mate with Gigi immediately after. Although this may happen with humans, I definitely do not think that this is the norm. Also, as seen on page 110, female chimpanzees are sometimes afraid of another male, but will still follow him, continuing a relationship in fear of what punishment he will put upon her. Again, this may happen in the human culture, but I do not think it happens often enough to be considered normal like it does in the chimpanzee culture. I do not believe that chimpanzees love one another in the way in which a married couple does.