Quantum of processing information. Quantum computers allow for much

Quantum computers are being slowly introduced to this world, allowing for a fresh approach to the method of processing information. Quantum computers allow for much greater possibilities than the traditional computers used by millions of people. Expanding the abilities that quantum mechanics possess and using its incredible power to revolutionise technology and further expand our knowledge. Allowing the possibility to greater our research in materials, drugs, complex systems, and artificial intelligence. The uses and benefits of quantum computers are endless and may lead to the next big era in technology. Max Planck, a German physicist, studied and later published the effect of radiation on a “blackbody.” Through his studies he discovered that energy can exhibit characteristics of physical matter (The birth of quantum theory, 2018). He theorized that radiant energy consists of particles-like components known as “quantum.” His theory helped explain the physics behind light absorption and behaviours when solids are heated. Physicists such as Einstein, Erwin Schrodinger, Niels Bohr, and Louis de Broglie later expanded Max Planck’s quantum theory and developed the mathematical application of quantum mechanics, concluding that energy is both matter and a wave. “Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles” (Quantum computing 101, 2013). Particles at this level behave in spectacular manner, having the ability to take on multiple states at the same time and interacting with particles from a large distance away. For the past few decades we have been using the traditional computer, in which has revolutionized the possibilities of technology and allowing us to open new doors to the technological world.  Without computers we wouldn’t have been able to sequence the human genome, the internet would never have existed, creating the LHC and discovering the Higgs Boson Particle, or even landing a man on the moon (World without computers, 2011). Though there are certain problems even the smartest computer can’t do. Extremely large formulas or complex molecules are impossible for a traditional computer to solve. A caffeine molecule for example is complex enough that no computer is capable of modeling the molecule and understanding its structure and properties (IBM, 2016). This is where quantum computers come in, they have the ability to solve some of the hardest problems that no other computer can. Allowing further innovation and discovers that are otherwise impossible.Classical computers uses long strings of “bits” that encode information. These bits can take the value of either a one or a zero. The bits act like an on and off switch, in which ultimately drives the functions of a computer. Bits are the smallest unit of data within a computer, and provide instructions that allow the computer to perform its intended actions. Quantum computers on the other hand use quantum bits, also known as qubits. They encode the zero and the one into two recognizable states, superposition and entanglement. These two states provide a superiority over the traditional computer bits, allowing greater opportunities and possibilities that are impossible to do on a classical computer. Quantum particles consist of atoms, electrons and photons, it’s quantum mechanic properties allow for superposition and entanglement to take place (uwaterloo, 2017). Superposition is the ability of a quantum system to exhibit multiple states at the same time, such as being “here and there” or “up” and “down” at the same time. Much like waves in classical physics, two or more quantum states can be added or “superposed,” resulting in another valid quantum state (IBM, 2016). Conversely every quantum state has the ability to represent a sum of two or more other distinct states. The mathematical application of superposition is referred as the Schrodinger equation. The linear equation allows for any linear combination of solutions that will also be a solution. Entanglement is when quantum bits in the state of superposition can be correlated with one another. Meaning that the state of one (weather a one or a zero) can depend on the others state. Entanglement allows for a very strong connection between quantum particle and qubits. The correlation of two or more particles is so strong that they are able to be linked in faultless unison even when separated an enormous distance away from each other (uwaterloo, 2017). The particles are theorized to be able to “dance” simultaneously if placed at other ends of the universe. Albert Einstein was quoted explaining this unexplainable phenomena as “spooky action from a distance.” The quantum bits ability to use the two principles of superposition and entanglement allow them to act like very advanced switches. Much like the classical switches used in traditional computers, using bits to encode a one or a zero. But instead using the laws of quantum mechanics to solve difficult problems that are seemingly impossible for our modern everyday computers.Qubit manipulation is another property of quantum mechanics. A logic gate within a traditional computer gets an uncomplicated set of inputs and produces one definite output. A quantum gate manipulates an input of superpositions, then rotates the probabilities, producing another superposition as its output. The quantum computer sets qubits, then applies quantum gates to entangle them and manipulate probability, and finally measuring the outcome, collapsing superpositions to an actual sequence of ones and zeros. Meaning the entirety of the  amount of calculations that are possible with your setup, can be all done at the same time. Exponentially more efficient than would ever be possible on a normal computer.Quantum computers ability to solve such problems that a regular computer can’t, will lead to a variety of possible technological breakthroughs. They have the strength to understand and model the complexity of molecules and chemical interactions. This could lead to new discoveries within the medical industry. Possible materials that we are unaware of could be recognized due to quantum computers. They could allow ultra- efficient logistics and supply chains, optimizing businesses. Quantum systems may enable new ways to model financial data, isolating global risk and helping the economy’s investments. Artificial intelligence will be more easily achieved with the help of quantum mechanics. Simulations powered by a quantum system will greatly increase accuracy and allow for very complex simulations. Simulations on traditional computer are very intense on resources, and for larger structures such as molecules, they often lack accuracy. The ability to simulate quantum physics on a classical computer is also highly difficult. With a quantum computer, we would be able to simulate quantum physics by using quantum physics. These quantum simulations could allow for new insights on proteins that might revolutionize medicine. One of the greatest advantages between a quantum computer and a traditional computer is the ability to factor very large numbers. Though multiplying two large numbers is easy for any computer, being able to factor a five-hundred plus digit number is simply impossible for a regular computer. Peter Shor, a mathematician from the Massachusetts Institution of Technology concluded in 1994 that a quantum computer will have the ability to factor extremely large digit numbers with little to no difficulty (uwaterloo, 2017). The basis of our modern cryptography relies on very complex math problems that are nearly impossible to solve without the use of a quantum computer. RSA encryption is used to encrypt credit card numbers while online shopping. This method of encryption uses a very difficult factoring problem, in which would take over a year for a traditional computer to solve. The online website gives you a “public key,” anyone is able to access it. The key is a product of of two large prime numbers, known only to the website. In order to access one’s personal information, the two prime numbers are needed. Two numbers that multiply to create the key. Fortunately factoring the key is extremely difficult for a classical computer, thus your credit card information is safe. Though for a quantum computer factoring the public key is easy. Due to quantum mechanics modern cryptography is jeopardised, though there’s no need to worry as quantum computers will also allow for a new type of highly secured cryptography. A method called the one-time pad enables a long string of ones and zeros to be transmitted, this is a secret key that can be used to decipher messages. Normally governments had to exchange books that consisted of random data which was used as the key, this was very inefficient and impractical. A new possibility, the Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) will allow to send completely random keys from a distance. By transmitting photons in which have a measurable property of polarization, they are able to send incredibly secure data. The amount of polarization in a photon is completely random, there is no way of knowing the properties of each proton in advance. Due to the quantum state of entanglement, if both servers measure the amount of polarization of the entangled photons received, it will be the same. As entanglement allows for the particles to be highly correlated, both sides will receive the same string of zeros and ones. Though if somebody attempts to intercept it, the string will be disturbed and the ones and zeros would no longer match between the two. In conclusion, the ability to use quantum computers will revolutionize the world we live in. Harnessing its power to greater understand the possibilities of technology and expanding its uses. Providing new opportunities for medicine, cryptography, artificial intelligence, etc. Allowing us to exceed the limits of our current knowledge and passing the technological barrier that our traditional computers have hit.