Parliament behalf of a company. These are not usually

Parliament is the highest legislative, judicial and
executive authority in Britain, consisting of the House of Commons, which
exercises effective power and the House of Lords. The House of Commons has six
main functions that they must carry out. There are six
main functions; Legislative, Deliberative, Scrutiny, Recruitment,
Legitimation and Representation. The legislature is a deliberative
body of persons, usually elective, who are empowered to make, change, or repeal
the laws of a country or state; the branch of government having the power to make laws, as distinguished
from the executive and judicial branches of government.


The House of Commons should aim to achieve its legislative
function. Resulting with parliament passing government’s
legislation. When the party most likely to enjoy the confidence of Her Majesty’s
government wins the general election, a government is formed consisting
of various parties. This government then makes laws that are converted
to acts of parliament, the legislation thus having been passed by parliament
successfully through the standardized process. Most bills that are
passed by parliament are government bills, however, some bills that
are passed through parliament are private members bills, for example, the
abolition of hanging in 1967 by Sydney Silverman. Unfortunately, bills through
parliament can take a lot of time to become legislation. This is because
there are multiple stages which the bill must go through which incorporates the
House of Lords stage by which the bill may be rejected or amended. The
final stage in the Royal Ascent is the process by which the queen
signs the bill by convention, meaning she always does this but it is not compulsory.

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The Act of Parliament has now been entered into the statute book
and must now be obeyed by all citizens of the UK, for the extent of
that parliamentary term.


Private Bills are introduced by individual private
members of the House or backbenchers. These can be done via a ballot or by the ten-minute
rule. These normally
only affect certain private interests and can be introduced by MPs,
usually on behalf of a company. These are not usually
matters of public policy but are usually for matters such as road building. Private
bills are commonly promoted by organisations such as local authorities or
private companies. These types of bills usually only apply to specific groups or
individuals rather than the general public. However private
bills, are more beneficial when there are specific parties involved.  An
individual can initiate a court action to protect rights conveyed by private
bills, which is not necessarily possible with public laws. Private laws have
their place in providing individuals with the ability to protect their
statutory rights, but the same protection is not extended to public laws. Most bills are
unsuccessful due to a lack of time, lack of Member interest, turnout and more
over government bills taking precedence.


Delegated legislation, also
known as secondary legislation, it is law created by an individual or a group that
are given executive authority by the primary legislation. It is law made
without being heard or voted upon by the general population, implying that it
is not representative. Delegated legislation saves a lot of time in Parliament
because it gives the members an opportunity to allow quick amendments to small
items. Often only trivial points need to be amended to existing legislation,
such as further clarification or fixing a typo, and delegated legislation makes
these minor changes far easier than having to revisit and start the whole
process again. Delegated legislation allows the legislative process to be a
lot quicker than the ordinary long methods. In some cases, Parliament will not
have the time to accurately edit of piece of legislation, and a quick creation
and implementation is required for the safety of a nation. For example, The
Prevention of Terrorism Act was created as a delegated piece of legislation in
the U.K. and this law made it possible to add new prohibited groups to the
Terrorism Act. Secondary legislation also has disadvantages. It suggests
that Parliament does not have enough time to properly review and scrutinise a
new piece of legislation and is only approving things to get them out the way
and make things easier for themselves. Another worry with delegated legislation
is that since they are passed through so easily without the correct levels of
scrutiny meaning that the pieces are not checked properly allowing anything to
go through. There is a huge lack of publicity with all delegated
legislation. Citizens are simply not told new laws, to the point where some
lawyers are not aware of the new laws either.
There are clear advantages, such as saving time, and disadvantages, such as
legality and potential abuse of the delegated legislative system. Members of
the British Parliament argue that it is a necessary evil to have delegated
legislation in order to keep Parliament moving and solving the most pressing


Hybrid bills may be introduced by the Government or
by a backbencher. These bills are introduced only rarely, the last occasion
being the Crossrail Bill introduced in 2004.

The changes to the law proposed by a Hybrid Bill would affect the general public but would also have a
significant impact for specific individuals or groups. The Bill passed concerning the
construction of the Channel Tunnel was an example of a Hybrid Bill. Hybrid bills often
propose works of national importance but in a specific area of the UK. The
Public Bill office decide whether a Bill falls into the Hybrid category. Both
the Commons and the Lords debate these bills and they go through a longer parliamentary
process than public bills. The procedures followed in
Parliament in considering hybrid bills incorporate aspects of both public bill
and private bill procedures. Promoters of hybrid bills do not need to prove the
need for their bill (promoters of private bills do).  Between a hybrid
bill’s introduction and Second Reading, time is provided for members of the
public to comment on the environmental statement published with the Bill. 
Following Second Reading, hybrid bills are committed to a select committee to
allow those affected by the Bill to petition against aspects of the Bill to
which they object.  After the select committee has reported, a hybrid bill
is considered in Public Bill Committee, on Report and debated at Third Reading,
like a public bill.  The same stages, including petitioning, are then
repeated in the House of Lords.



Due to the large amount of time it takes to pass bills the House of
Commons does not fulfil its legislative function effectively. As
well as this, the leading party will always have the majority in
parliament, meaning it will almost always be able to push through its legislation,
except for our current situation where the Conservative Party is in coalition
with the DUP, meaning that there is sometimes conflict in agreeing on
legislation. Therefore, bills which are passed are not necessarily good pieces
of legislation.