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F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby, published in 1925, is the story of the idiosyncratic millionaire Jay Gatsby. It is narrated by Nick Carraway, a Midwesterner from Long Island who later moves to Manhattan. Gatsby’s life is organized around one desire, Daisy, the woman he loved. This desire leads him on an expedition from poverty to wealth, reuniting with his old love, and his eventual death. In his novel, F. Scott Fitzgerald is able to portray the American Dream where people seek out self-gratification and pleasure. He captures the romance of the roaring twenties with the cars, money, illegal alcohol and the wildest parties one could imagine. Much like the character, Jay Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940), wasn’t born into the upper class. While Gatsby is from the lower class, Fitzgerald from the middle class, both end up becoming exceptionally rich, fall into the wildest and reckless life, and use their fortunes to win the love and approval of the women they once loved.
To help readers get a better understanding of novels, this one in particular, many scholars consider using critical lens theories. A critical lens theory is the analysis of elements of a text to gain a different perspective. Although there are many critical lens theories for The Great Gatsby, such as the marxist theory, the feminist theory, or even the structuralism, the one that seems the most pertinent to the novel is the psychoanalytical theory. The psychoanalytical critical theory lens focuses primarily on components which are all connected, like the conscious and unconscious mind elaborated as the Id, ego, and superego otherwise known as the three parts of the human psyche, defence mechanisms and the oedipus complex. These 
The psychoanalysis theory is believed to have been created by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), also known as one of the father of psychology. Freud’s unconventional theories of the preconscious and an unconscious came at a revolutionary time as the 1920s is one of the most influential time of history. They were a great change for science and technology and society as well as psychology. Seeing as Sigmund Freud and F. Scott Fitzgerald lived in for the most part in the same epoch, and that The Great Gatsby also came out in the 1920s, it makes sense that the Freudian psychology would present itself in Fitzgerald’s novel. Without the psychoanalysis of the novel, it would be difficult to understand the characters behaviour. 
Freudian psychology suggests that, “the unconscious mind (or the unconscious) consists of the processes in the mind that occurs automatically and is not available to introspection, and include thought processes, memory, affect, and motivation.” (A. Mojtaba Gholipour and B. Mina Sanahmadi, 2013). In other words, it is an important factor in determining human behaviour, desires and even motivations. This is mostly prevalent in Jay Gatsby’s character. His unconscious mind led him to create a whole new world. One that he could not have. His action of becoming eerily wealthy was motivated by his need to reunite with Daisy, but not necessarily for her as a human, instead as an emotional shield he desires. Jay Gatsby’s reprehensible fixation and magnification of Daisy as the perfect woman confirms his fear of intimacy. Furthermore, Tom and Daisy’s relationship prove that the best way to obtain this emotional shield, one must avoid intimacy with others. 
Jay Gatsby, Tom, Daisy and Nick all display the three part of the human psyche. The Id, ego and super-ego. According to Freud, “Id motives are motives low in the hierarchy of motivational derivations…which press for realization without regard for consequences. Ego motives are motives stemming from the barriers and presses imposed by outer reality (the barriers and presses being experienced as such by the individual) and directed towards the maintenance of a maximum degree of gratification of all of the individual’s motives. The existence of ego motives is conditioned, on the one hand, by the existence of id and, later, superego motives and, on the other hand, by the perception of barriers and presses imposed by the outer environment.” (Chein, 1943). Gatsby’s desire towards Daisy remain on the Id level. Readers can see that Gatsby has been controlled by his desires through his lavish parties , pursuit of pragmatism as well as his obsession of wanting to repeat the past and control time to regain Daisy’s attention. Nick Carraway serves as Gatsby’s super-ego.Nick’s morals is what sets him apart from the other characters. He isn’t afraid to tell Gatsby what he thinks by constantly judging and warning him. Tom Buchanan, as well as Gatsby, is also on the id level. Due to his high stature he is able to get away with behaviours that would normally be deemed inappropriate such as his extramarital affairs with his mistress Myrtle, his sexism as well as racism. Daisy Buchanan is also on the Id level. There are only two things she cares about, money and a yearning to be loved. Like her husband, she too commits infidelity with Gatsby. She is so consumed by the lavish lifestyle that she marries because he is rich and accessible. Moreover, Daisy’s Id motives are reinforced after Gatsby’s death. She chooses to run away rather than admitting to the killing, and proves once again that like her husband, they are capable of doing whatever they want without regards of consequences.
The unconscious mind and the human psyche are elaborated through Freud’s defence mechanism. Defence mechanisms are psychological strategies generated by the unconscious mind to manipulate, deny, or distort reality in order to protect against feelings of uneasiness resulting from unacceptable thoughts to sustain self-control The main examples of defence mechanisms are regression, denial, projection, displacement, repression, and sublimation. In The Great Gatsby, Gatsby is seen to mostly be in a state of denial. He refuses to let go of his past with Daisy and continues his affair. In addition, he also demonstrates signs of repression by undergoing a complete transformation from James Gatz, a lower-class man, to Jay Gatsby, a wealthy man. Tom and Daisy seem to use sexual sublimation as a way to raise their fear of intimacy by satisfying they impulse through adultery. 
“The Oedipus complex, considered by Freud the “nuclear complex of development,” played a central role in the evolution of psychoanalytic thought.” (Schein, 2016).  The Oedipus complex is focused around the idealization, obsession or addiction along with feelings of vilification or criticism that children will feel about their parents. This is demonstrated in The Great Gatsby through the way Tom and Daisy’s role in parenting their daughter, Pammy. It is implied throughout the book that neither Tom nor Daisy were close with either one of their parents, which could explain why they are not close to their 3-year-old daughter, Pammy. Alternatively, the Buchanans use Pammy as a possession or object to complete their American dream.

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