Ozone in the upper atmosphere. ( high-level ozone )However,

Ozone Depletion

Introduction of ozone and ozone depletion

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          Ozone, (g) is a highly reactive pale-blue gas that found in the
stratosphere of our atmosphere as the ozone layer. Ozone layer is located
between 17 km o 25 km above the surface of the Earth, so it is known as the
high-level ozone. Ozone molecule with a penetrating odour is a combination of
three atoms of oxygen. A stable oxygen molecule, is split by the
ultraviolet radiation or electrical discharge to form an ozone molecule. (
Figure 4.0 shown in Appendices 4). Hence, ozone in maintained by the action of
the ultraviolet rays light on ozone. Ozone layer acts in the role of shielding
organisms from excessive ultraviolet radiation from the sun in the upper atmosphere.
( high-level ozone )However, ozone will leads to the stunted growth in plants,
asthma in living organisms and causes particular material to be corroded when
it is at the ground level( low-level ozone). Ozone depletion occurs when the
ozone layer is becoming thinner and thinner and more ultraviolet ray radiation
is reached on the Earth.

Causes of ozone depletion

          Ozone depletion can happened through
two ways, that is naturally and caused by human activities. By natural, ozone
molecules will combine with the nitrogen oxide to form nitrogen dioxide. Then,
nitrogen dioxide will bind with oxygen atom to form nitrogen oxide and oxygen.
The used of refrigerator and air-conditioner by human will cause large amount
of chlorofluorocarbon, CFC to be released into the environment. This is because
CFC is used as a coolant in both refrigerator and air-conditioner. The uses of
fire extinguishers containing halons and other ozone depleter such as carbon
tetrachloride and methyl chloroform will result in the thinning of the ozone
layer. For most of the ozone depleters are made up of chorine or bromine which
is chemically stable compounds. The intense ultraviolet radiation will break
those molecules once they are at the upper atmosphere. Ultraviolet radiation strikes
a CFC molecule and causes a highly reactive single chlorine radical to break
away. The free chlorine radical collides with an ozone molecule and combine
with oxygen atom to form chlorine monoxide and oxygen. When a free atom of
oxygen collides with chlorine monoxide, two oxygen atoms form a molecule of
oxygen. The chlorine atom is thus released and free to destroy more ozone
molecules. ( Figure 4.1 shown in Appendices 4)


Examples of ozone depletion in the world

          The extreme condition of ozone
depletion is forming a continent-size hole known as ozone hole over Antarctica.
CFC is parts of the reason for the formation of the ozone hole. In 1989, the
depletion increases by 47% as compared to the 3% over the Artic. It is believed
that the ozone will continued to deplete at a rate of 5% for every decades (
Figure 4.2 shown in Appendices 4). A strong stratospheric wind will blows
around the surface of the Earth during the Antarctic winter, resulting the
Stratosphere, over Antarctica to be separated from the rest of the atmosphere,
to be extremely cold. As the result, ice cloud will be formed and lead to the
accumulation of chlorine molecules. When it is spring time, free chlorine atoms
are formed due to the break down of chorine molecules formed during winter
time. Thus, the ozone depleting reactions are continued.