Olivia: Hello, and welcome back the 8 o’clock news! We are your hosts! My name is Olivia.Sahiba: I’m Sahiba!Morgan: And I’m Morgan! And we are reporting to you live from Italy, the center of Fascist beliefs and Mussolini’s historical rise to power. Sahiba: Let’s start with a bit of background. Who is Mussolini? Benito Mussolini is an Italian politician, journalist and the leader of the National Republican Fascist party! He ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943, during which he founded the Italian Fascist Party. Morgan: Onto our first two topics! The Rise of Benito Mussolini and his “March on Rome” and his use of the “Black Shirts”. Mussolini rose to power in the 1920s and he represented a model for strong men in Europe. Mussolini highly criticized the Italian government for their weakness at the Treaty of Versailles. He capitalized on the citizens discomfort after World War I, and he went to organize a paramilitary unit known as the “Black Shirts,” who terrified and terrorized their political enemies, and helped to uplift the Fascist ideals. They were originally called “Voluntary Militia for National Security”, but were commonly called the Blackshirts. They were the paramilitary wing of the Fascist party, and dawned black uniforms, based on Italy’s uniforms during WWI. Olivia: Italy descended into political chaos throughout this time, and Mussolini stated that only he could restore order and was given the title as prime minister in 1922. While in power, Mussolini slowly tore apart all democratic institutions, and by 1925, he had successfully made himself dictator, coining the title “Il Duce”, meaning “the Leader”.Sahiba: The March on Rome was an organized mass demonstration in October of 1922, resulting in Mussolini’s National Fascist Party rising to power in the Italy, just as he wanted. In October of 1922, the Fascist Party leaders planned out the violent uprising, and decided it would take place on October 28th. Mussolini was able to convince and mobilize almost 30,000 troops for this iconic and historical march. When the fascist troops arrived in Rome, Prime Minister Luigi Facta declared a state of siege, but this declaration was overruled by the King. On the next day, October 29th of 1922, the King appointed Mussolini as Prime Minister, in which he transferred political power to the fascists without any armed conflict.Morgan: While in power, Mussolini did achieve many great feats! While in power, he did achieve many great titles, such as the Duce and the Prime Minister. He was also able to take advantage of the high instability and political downfall in Italy at the time. Using his skills as a teacher and a journalist, Mussolini was able to convince and create his Fascist Party, and help it rise to power. Let’s talk about the difference between Fascism and Communism, as this can be very confusing for some of our viewers!Olivia: Simply, Communism is a system based around a theory of economic equality and the system as a whole strives for a classless society, where fascism is a more nationalism based system, containing an ideal of strict class roles, and a country that is ruled by a single ruler, or a dictator. Communism and fascism got their start in Europe and gained in popularity in the early to mid 20th century.Sahiba: Now what is the definition of Totalitarianism and Fascism? Well, Totalitarianism is a system of government that is centralized and dictatorial and requires complete willingness to obey the state. While, as explained by Morgan, Fascism is a term used to describe any centralized, government that is not a communist party, in which their main ideals glorify the state over the individual and the whole idealism of Fascism is very harmful to human rights. Morgan: Thank you so much for tuning in to the 8 o’clock news! We will see you tomorrow!