College – 2017/18 Academic Year
End of First Semester Examination for Module on
Date: 18th December, 2017. 3-6 p.m.
Lecturers’ Names: Professor
Identification Number: 20170809
answer any three of the six
Discuss the two classical International Relations theories. (10 points)
Illustrate each theory with an appropriate and current case study. (10points).
like other state functions, evolves with time. What are the main developments
in contemporary times which have contributed to changes in diplomatic
functions, especially in respect of the traditional role of a diplomat? (20
a. Describe any three international
organizations which showcase
multilateralism at its best. (10 points).
the extent to which the named organizations, in their decision making
processes, are respectful of the concept of the sovereign equality of states? (10 points).
is your assessment of the diplomatic maneuvers of current US President Donald
Trump, against the backdrop of traditional US Foreign policy. (10
b. Name three major decisions with
international repercussions taken by the Trump Administration and state how
they could affect developing countries including Ghana. (10 points).
how the efficiency of political and economic policies pursued at the national
level impacts effective economic diplomacy of a country.
is the Vienna Convention of 1961, a cornerstone of International Law,
indispensable to modern diplomatic practice? (20 points).
insert numbers of questions answered in the box below.
Why is the Vienna Convention of 1961, a
cornerstone of International Law, indispensable to modern diplomatic practice? (20 points).
1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations follows the measures of law that
brings conciliation, endorsed in Canada in 1966 and realized by the Foreign
Missions and International Organizations Act. The Convention systematizes the
standards for the exchange and treatment of diplomats between states, which
have been relentlessly settled in standard law for a long time. It has
transformed into an inside and out got Convention with 179 states assembling to
Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations is major lead of outside relations
and ensures that diplomats can coordinate their commitments without threat of
effect by the host government. In particular, the Convention sets up the going
with I) rules for the arrangement of outside diplomats; ii) the sacredness of
mission premises; iii) insurance for the negotiator and his or her family from
any type of capture or detainment; iv) assurance of all types of strategic
correspondence; v) the fundamental standard of exclusion from tax collection;
vi) resistance from common and managerial locale, with constrained special
cases; and vii) that representatives must regard the laws of the host state (Carlsnaes,
is communicated in the prelude of the Convention, the principles are required
to empower the progression of all around arranged relations among nations,
paying little respect to their changing consecrated and social structures. The
inspiration driving such advantages and protections isn’t to benefit
individuals yet to ensure the beneficial execution of the components of
Convention anticipates that arbitrators will obey neighborhood laws; in any
case, the principle approve sensible under the Convention, without a waiver of
immunity, is evacuation. This keeps the potential mistreat by close-by experts
of the vitality of a state’s law execution system. Correspondence similarly
outlines a convincing endorsement for the acknowledgment of the principles of
showed by the Vienna Convention, the components of a propitiatory mission
consolidate (1) the depiction of the sending state in the host state at a level
past the essentially social and formal; (2) the confirmation inside the host
state of the interests of the sending state and its nationals, including their
property and offers in firms; (3) the exchange and consenting to of courses of
action with the host state when endorsed; (4) the noteworthy and amassing of
information by each real mean on conditions and changes in the host country for
the sending government; and (5) the progression of all around arranged
relations between the two states and the helping of their fiscal, business,
social, and consistent relations. Political missions moreover give open
organizations to their nationals, including going about as a lawful authority
open, giving constituent enlistment, issuing travel allows and papers for
military acceptance, implying hurt or wiped out nationals to adjacent diplomats
and legitimate counsellors, and ensuring non-discriminatory treatment for those
blamed for or kept for infringement (Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations,
to subjects and the close-by open are given by junior and consular staff,
however specific attachés partake in security and much constrained time
activity. The pastor is blamed for finishing each one of the endeavors of the
vital mission through subordinates or through individual intercession with
close-by diplomats when imperative. Most agents are by and by seriously
possessed with the headway of trade and in helping exclusive organizations in
business wrangle about. The head of mission, the head’s mate, and the operator
contribute much vitality connecting with going to administrators and going to
social affairs at which some business is coordinated and information is
accumulated yet depiction similarly includes lodging official or easy-going
disputes with the host government or clearing up and protecting national course
of action. An agent’s most asking for step by step works out, regardless,
remain declaring, separating, and organizing
achievement of the UN can be straightforwardly connected to the Vienna
Conference as it turned into a really all-inclusive association. Nations have
characteristic enthusiasm for the assurance of their ambassadors therefore
making the insurance of negotiators individual abroad a worldwide concern and
inside the settlement a multilateral (Bruns, 2016).
Diplomacy, like other state functions, evolves with time. What
are the main developments in contemporary times which have contributed to
changes in diplomatic functions, especially in respect of the traditional role
of a diplomat? (20 points).
idea of diplomacy has existed in a few structures ever. A portion of the
structures have experienced relational unions, exchange, kinship, and so on.
Current diplomacy has advanced from the old method for diplomacy and it has been
all around characterized post the second world war. Diplomacy is characterized
as the direct of relations amongst states and other non-state elements which
have impact in world governmental issues by official diplomats and by quiet
means. The purpose behind diplomacy is to fortify the state, nation, or
affiliation it serves in association with others by driving the interests in
its charge. To this end, key activity endeavors to open up a social affair’s
good conditions without the risk and cost of using power and in a perfect world
without causing harm.
the present contemporary world with the spread of democracy rules system has
made another condition in the worldwide structure to win hearts and brains of
people by governments. This is the thing that diplomacy does by trying to
affect outside nationals and individuals when all is said in done with regards,
methodologies and exercises of their lawmaking bodies to be maintained. Diplomacy
can be described as the undertakings of one nation to affect open or elites of
the accompanying nation to use outside system to its goal. Governments
constantly try to talk with remote open to exchange their contemplations, its
associations and culture, and likewise national goals and current
fundamental point is that flow of information around the globe isn’t
constrained in view of new advancement that can transmit messages the world
over in seconds like with doing combating dread based mistreatment amid a
period of overall steady TV and the web. Diplomacy moreover serves both
individual and multilateral diplomacy as in they are normal for national
premium like in the trip of wander, progression of trade, and overall tourism
which is similarly suggested as stamping and besides makes interest and
affiliation. Case can be found in the Canadian and Norwegian association with
the Ottawa method on landmines which demonstrates how collaboration between the
private and worldwide approach fields and general society and private circle.
most governments looking at open thoughtfulness, their first thought is to
talk. This is a mistake. The best open diplomacy starts with tuning in,
proficiently assembling and separating the thoughts of outside arrangements.
Cases of governments fail to tune in and jumping into an outside course of
action with no thought in regards to world feeling prosper. North Korea, for
example, has contributed decades neglecting world conclusion. Cases in which
listening has shaped the most lifted measures of approach are harder to find
splendid oversee of Diplomacy is that what counts isn’t what you say however
what you do. There isn’t a feasible option for sound procedure, and a ruler
with the reputation for sound approach will find their vitality on the planet
improved. By enlargement, the most indispensable association in any Diplomacy
structure is the thing that partners tuning in to policymaking and ensures that
outside conclusion is said something the remote approach process.
of the noteworthy issues standing up to ambassadors today is the slant of a
couple of governments to envision their work not as an approach to attract
worldwide publics yet rather as a part to rouse private social occasions of
individuals. These organizations are dire to show their own specific people all
that is being done to educate the world or to correct the misperceptions. They
lead Diplomacy abroad for the explanations behind deliberate exposure at home.
A couple of nations have created colossal organizations to produce a supporting
(yet nonexistent) picture of overall reverence for their country
convincing open consideration requires validity. The issue is that the
techniques for achieving legitimacy differentiate starting with one part of
Diplomacy then onto the next.
sensible need to be accepted to be fruitful has been one of the components that
has by and large pushed governments to place themselves in within organize in
their diplomacy, paying little regard to whether their voice is most suitable
to impel the reason they wish to help. Irrefutably the most convincing
occasions of open civility are the time when the state wanders back or on the
other hand connects with others to describe their story.
is tied in with advancing remote game plan and that it may not so much concern
the photo of the state – it may be composed or perhaps at building a general
difference in the all-inclusive condition, or empowering indigenous voices
inside a target state or states.
luring to compartmentalize diplomacy like the particular secure of the people
who draw in remuneration checks to work in the field, yet this is to neglect
both the dedication of ‘ inhabitant arbitrators ‘ and the’ all-inclusive
community to people ‘ open technique did through work like town twinning (Cull,
must be passed by the parliament and affirmed by the president. It helps
discovering answers for regional question. A fine case is India Bangladesh
Treaty of land trade (Cull, 2010).
regularly incorporate numerous signatories and for which the first signatories
urge different nations to join long after the first understanding is come to.
In 1973, for instance, agents of 80 nations conceded to a Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) to ensure uncommon plants and
creatures around the globe (United States Diplomacy Center, nd)
Discuss the two classical International Relations theories. (10 points)
Illustrate each theory with an appropriate and current case study. (10points).
possibility of a theory is to help in the investigation of universal wonders in
an efficient and organized way. A theory is judged not by as current thoughts
but rather the reason to acquire and arrange the understanding and significance
of general happenings that without will stay incoherent. A theory is in this
way an arrangement of interrelated ideas, definitions, and recommendations that
clarifies or predicts occasions or circumstances by indicating relations among
factors and a theory of worldwide relations is an arrangement of thoughts that
clarifies how the universal framework functions. The two noteworthy theory of global
relations are realism and idealism.
consider the primary on-screen characters in the worldwide field to be states,
which are worried about their own security, demonstration in quest for their
own national advantages, and battle for control. The negative side of the
Realists’ accentuation on power and self-intrigue is frequently their wariness
with respect to the pertinence of moral standards to relations among states.
National legislative issues are the domain of expert and law, while universal
governmental issues, they here and there guarantee, is a circle without equity,
described by dynamic or potential clash among states.
Features of Political Realism are I) History gives confirm that mankind is by
nature evil and devilish; ii) Lust for power and strength has been a
noteworthy, exceedingly essential and all inescapable certainty of human
instinct; iii) Human intuition for control can’t be wiped out; iv) Struggle for
control is the indisputable and endless reality of global relations; v) Each
country dependably tries to secure the objectives of national intrigue
characterized in term of energy; vi) Self-safeguarding is the law that
administers the conduct of the considerable number of states consistently; vii)
Nations dependably look for control, show power and utilize power and viii)
Peace can be saved just by administration of energy through such gadgets as
Balance of Power, Collective Security, World Government, Diplomacy, Alliances
and so forth (Morgenthau, 1960).
primary govern of political authenticity keeps up that authoritative issues are
grounded in conspicuous laws of human nature – any idealistic undertaking to
challenge these laws will simply incite frustration. Thusly, the assignment of
political Realists is the attempting of this observing theory against the
authentic shows and their outcomes that gives theoretical significance to the
substances of general relations.
second rule of political authenticity is the centrality of energy: Realists
assume that power is the rule appearing of political interest, a theory which
can be attempted by the detectable exercises of statesmen all through history.
By focusing on the examination of political power, Realists make a presumption
of examination of technique: each state can be separated similarly as power
third rule is that while control is an overall significant thought,
authenticity does not supply that thought with a suggesting that is made due
with once and each one of the. By the day’s end, while the unit of examination
remains control, the procedure and verbalization of vitality every single
through hundreds of years has changed and will continue doing as such. Be that
as it may, Realists still can’t resist repudiating their self-assured person
accomplices in assuming that the advance a long way from the nation state
system will occur because of the laws of worldwide relations – not by the
considered solicitations of an optimistic minority.
showed by the fourth standard, political authenticity thinks about the moral
criticalness of political action. Regardless, the moral measures pertinent to a
particular technique must be historicized and contextualized. Accordingly,
ethics is intertwined into political authenticity through the figuring of the
political aftereffects of a particular methodology or action.
fifth rule holds that political authenticity decays to perceive the moral
desires of a particular nation with the moral laws that administer the
universe. Since nations have and will continue camouflaging their particular
goals inside the tongue of general significant quality. Rather, control shapes
the purpose behind judging the exercises of various countries and making
appropriate reactions to those exercises.
long last, the sixth rule is the insistence of the matchless quality of political
examination in the domain of politics. Despite the way that it may sound
undeniable. In this manner, the vitality of a country and the welfare of its
nationals have been routinely imperiled. Or maybe, authenticity advocates that
system must develop out of completely political examination: an examination of
vitality (Morgenthau, 1960).
issue that Realism can help comprehend is Iran’s atomic approach. The atomic
program began in the 1950s and was crossed out after the Islamic upheaval of
1979. By the by, it was continued in the last piece of the war against Iraq, as
Tehran needed to prepare for a future amazement practically equivalent to
Iraq’s rehashed utilization of compound weapons. This arrangement was in
similarity with Machiavellian standards, which concentrate on reasonability and
thinking ahead, belligerence that a state should “avoid any risk postured
by his or her neighbors. At show, Iran’s main adversary in the district is
Israel, which is generally thought to have atomic power, despite the fact that
its atomic ability is apparently the most cryptic weapons of mass demolition
program on the planet. The previous summons security augmentation and common
purposes as defense for atomic multiplication, keeping up that its atomic
program is only for serene purposes. Nonetheless, this clarification is
exceptionally questioned by whatever remains of the world, including
associations, for example, the United Nations and the International Atomic
Energy Agency, which keep on applying sanctions against the Middle Eastern
state. In the meantime, Israel considers the atomic program of Iran a risk to
its reality and does not bar the utilization of military power in the event
that worldwide assents are not fruitful in stopping it.
Current issues than can be approached utilizing the realist approach are the
North Korea Nuclear improvement, Syria dismissal of UN mediation amid the
underlying phases of their security emergencies and the present trump
arrangement on relocation into the US .
is a specific school of liberalism that tensions the prerequisite for states to
look for after great goals and to act ethically in the worldwide field.
Romantics assume that lead considered degenerate on a social level is
furthermore dishonorable in remote course of action. In this way, optimists
fight that awfulness, clever, and violence should be avoided.
principle highlights of Idealism are that I) human instinct is basically great
and prepared to do great deeds in universal relations; ii) Human welfare and
progression of development are the worries of all; iii) Bad human conduct is
the result of terrible condition and awful establishments; iv) By transforming
the earth, awful human conduct can be dispensed with; v) War speaks to the most
exceedingly awful element of relations; vi) By improving worldwide relations,
war can be and ought to be disposed of; vii) Global endeavors are expected to
end war, savagery and oppression from universal relations; viii) International
people group should work for taking out such worldwide instruments, highlights
and practices which prompt war and ix) International foundations resolved to
protect worldwide peace, global lawfulness ought to be produced for securing
peace, success and improvement (Walker, 1987).
is guided by 6 standards which are:
Believes in the universal mind, Idealism regards man as a Spiritual Being, Real
learning is seen at the top of the priority list, Stress on the principle of
unity of diversity, importance of personality development (Walker, 1987)
issues that can examined utilizing Idealism theory are the supporter for atomic
weapons free world, entrusting universal security to the UN, the desires of the
African Union, or the worldwide annihilation of destitution, yearning and
imperative marvel that can be case examined utilizing the dreamer approach is
the reasonable advancement procedures been stick headed by the unified country.
The SDGs is separated into three sections to be specific social, condition and
financial aspects. All these influence the all-inclusive presence of making.
One of the standards of Idealism is the acknowledgment that human welfare and
headway of progress are the worries of all.
together among countries are frequently framed for shared financial, political
or security advantage, and can be multilateral or reciprocal. The North
Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was shaped in 1949 to fill in as a rampart
against dangers by the comrade Warsaw Pact in Eastern Europe. Since the fall of
the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the disintegration of Pact countries, numerous
Eastern European countries have joined NATO, in this way changing and extending
its cautious viewpoint. A two-sided case is the US-South Korea Mutual Defense
Treaty of 1953.
are willful commitments that nations go into rather than an arrangement or
while they endeavor to work out the terms of a settlement. The Paris Accord is
an understanding among countries to confine the emanations of ozone harming