solid waste is an increasing problem in our country alongside to air and water
pollution. One of the prime example of solid waste is construction waste.
Construction waste can be concluded as material that made by human regardless
of its purpose that has no residual value. Activities such as renovation,
infrastructure development, demolition, earthworks and land clearing are
considered as the major contributor. Such activities produce various types of waste.
For instance, concrete, wood, iron bricks, plastic, paint cans and are mixed
between them. This problem has become a big issue in Malaysia due to the huge
amount of demand on houses and major infrastructure projects (Zainun,
Rahman, & Rothman, n.d.). Even though, these buildings are
influencing the growth of our country, it is also increase the percentages of
pollution in Malaysia as a developing country (Ali,
Ali, Islam, & Rahman, 2016).
of the many reasons why this problem has become a priority to our nation is
because pollution may
increase the risks and harm to living organisms and environment through several
actions. For instance, direct consumption or touch with polluted soil. Another
aspects of this problem is that the food cycle whether the soil-plant-human nor
soil-plant-animal-human, drinking of polluted water, decreasing in food quality
whether safety or marketability by phytotoxicity, decreasing in land usability
for farming production causing food insecurity and land administration problems
& Okieimen, 2011).
metal are widely known for their elements that contains large amount of number
in amount of atomic weight and greater density than water approximately 5g/cm3
Yedjou, Patlolla, & Sutton, 2012). According to the research done before,
heavy metal toxicity and accumulation not only depends on metal concentrations
but also on other factors. For instance, the form in which the metal component is
available. Another factor of this problem is the type and concentration of
other materials and the integration of physicochemical parameters, such as
temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, sediment grain size, pH and
organic carbon (Sany et
top of that, the reason of why biota was used during this research is because
of the elevated contamination of heavy metals which can cause various health
condition towards invertebrates, fish and human (Ali et
al., 2016). Besides, the surface sediment was used in this study due
to its widely known as environmental index for the analysis of metal
contamination in the aquatic environment (Islam,
Ahmed, Raknuzzaman, Habibullah -Al- Mamun, & Islam, 2015).