NAME : LYNNE NTHAMBIREG NO. : ASGQ/00063/2014DATE : 15TH January, 2018.TERM PAPER:It is argued that international migration causes brain drain in some of the most developing states in the world. In view of this and using relevant examples from Africa and Latin America discuss the policy efforts currently being undertaken to address the economic, social and institutional international migration challenges.?ContentsIntroduction 2International Migration Challenges 2Benefits of Migration 5Policies addressing migration challenges 7Conclusion 11Bibliography 12IntroductionInternational migration is the movement of a person or a group of people across international borders. People move from their country of origin to another country for various reasons. These are classified into push and pull factors. Push factors include economic factors such as lack of employment and employment opportunities, underdevelopment and poverty, lack of basic needs, natural disaster and civil instability and war among other factors. Pull factors include peace and security, job opportunities, family reunification, academic reasons such as scholarships or quest for better quality of education, social networks and demand for labor among others.International Migration ChallengesBrain drain according to the International Organization for Migration (IOM) is the emigration of trained and talented individuals from their country of origin to another country resulting in depletion of skills resources in the country of origin. Brain drain is a negative perspective of migration. This perception is prevalent in developing countries. This is because the country of origin incurs the cost of educating the individuals who form a high percentage of skilled migrants, and reaps no benefits from these individuals who then find jobs abroad. They end up contributing to the economy of the host state more than that of the country of origin. Secondly, once qualified personnel migrate to other countries they leave a gap in their respective sectors. This has been observed in various developing countries. The health sector in particular has suffered in developing states because once medical students acquire their degrees in medicine and are certified as doctors they move to other countries with better working conditions, better salaries and environments where they will be able to practice and enhance their skills effectively. Some skilled migrants feel underutilized in their countries. this is associated with “… the limited labor absorption, which is not in tune with the trend that points at a rapid generation of supply of individuals with a professional and technical  training, the low salaries, the non-voluntary inactivity, open unemployment, underemployment, salaries lower than those that are deserved and outsourcing” (ECLAC, 2006: 39).Castles and Miller point out that there are reports of hospitals in the Philippines that have to close their operating rooms because all of its trained staff has left for the United Kingdom (Castles and Miller, 2004:209). During a 2006 UN Conference to discuss issues of migration, the then Ghanaian Minister of the Interior, Papa Owusu-Ankomah cited that about three million Ghanaians were working abroad at the time. He reported that there were more Ghanaian doctors abroad than in Ghana. The country had also lost about 50% of its nurses to other states which left the public health sector in Ghana in a bad state.Emigration has been viewed as a factor that contributes to the slow growth of the sending states. This is because the citizens migrate when they are at their prime productivity age. There has been growing demand for both skilled and unskilled labor in the North which is attributed to an aging population due to low fertility levels. Unskilled labor is needed to fill the jobs that the locals are not interested in taking up especially the blue collar jobs. When this population leaves the country of origin is left without professionals and labor to drive its economy hence slow growth.Sending states are also at a risk of becoming dependent on remittances and foreign aid to run their economies. Remittances make a significant contribution to the economies of countries in the south. For instance in Kenya, remittances have become the top foreign exchange source for the country. They grew steadily to displace tourism and agricultural exports. In September 2017, a report by the Central Bank of Kenya indicated that remittances account for 2.5% of the GDP. Remittances are monies that are sent to family members often, through either formal or informal channels. They could work to the detriment of the society by discouraging participation of recipients of the money in the local economy. Remittances are not targeted to initiatives designed to spur development or to projects that have high social returns, rather they can be used by recipients to maximize their own private welfare, which may or may not contribute to sustainable economic growth (Rosenzweig, 2005). Studies done in a town in the Dominican Republic also showed that children who received financial support from their parents abroad got comfortable and neglected their school work because of the guaranteed flow of income. Human rights violations are a major challenge attributed to increased movement of people in the world today. Migrants are on the receiving end of this one. Skilled migrants find themselves in countries where the quality of their education is lowly regarded hence they end up doing jobs that are below their skill set. Unskilled migrants however suffer more explicit violations of their rights. Unskilled migrants take up casual jobs. They become domestic workers and casual laborers. Under such circumstances they are highly likely to be working under poor conditions for low wages.There is a lot of emigration to the Middle Eastern countries by girls and women to work as domestic workers. However, there have been reports of inhumane treatment of migrants working in these countries. A 2017,Human Rights Watch report on Tanzanian workers in Oman and the United Arab Emirates found that migrants worked long hours for little pay, there was forced labor and some were subjected to both physical and sexual abuse by their employers. Middle Eastern countries like Oman have no provisions for domestic workers in their labor laws and as such migrants who become domestic workers in the country are excluded from protection. These countries also have a system where the employer pays for the travel expenses of the migrant and therefore upon arrival, the migrant has to pay back the expenses and they have their documents confiscated-debt bondage. This makes it hard for them to find other jobs. The recruiting agencies do little to help and when the migrants report issues to them, they don’t act but instead sometimes force the migrants back to their employers.Some migrants leave their countries with expectations of leaving poverty behind and empowering themselves economically only to become victims of human trafficking. Kenya is one of the transit routes used by traffickers because of its porous borders. In December 2017, a Kenyan woman and a Rwandese man were arrested for being in possession of two young Rwandese girls and a number of passports from different countries. The two girls had been promised jobs in Doha, Qatar. Police records also indicated a rise in the number of Rwandese and Ugandans smuggled through Kenya to Middle Eastern countries. This was attributed to the bans by Rwanda and Uganda against working in the middles east for their nationals.Benefits of MigrationInasmuch as developing countries would be proponents of brain drain, international migration goes beyond the negative impacts to create opportunities for economic development. Migration has brought about ideas such as brain gain and brain circulation which are a reverse of brain drain. Migrants who go abroad to further their studies as well as skilled migrants are able to acquire knowledge and new technology in the receiving state. This knowledge can be used to address local challenges in their countries of origin and contribute to sustainable development. Migration facilitates the sharing of technology and expertise globally.International migration encourages foreign direct investments. Skilled migrants build networks abroad. They have good knowledge of their countries and the investment opportunities available. Through these connections interested parties have access to information on what investment opportunities to harness. Foreign direct investments play an important role in the growth of an economy both locally and in their home country. They provide employment to the local population improving their standards of living. The local governments also earn revenue from these as well as the country of origin which gets profits.International migration can lead to bilateral cooperation between states especially when there is a high number of exchange of migrants. For instance, a number of countries which indulge in trade with China, do so due to the presence of Chinese nationals in the country. (Rauch and Trindade, 2002: 116).Remittances contribute to the growth of developing economies. Firstly they are a crucial foreign exchange earner for developing countries. Foreign exchange is important for a country to participate in international trade. Migrants, especially skilled migrants send monies back home for the purpose of investment. Most of them invest in development projects like real estate. Others start projects to improve the social welfare of the local population because they feel obliged to give back to their communities at home and improve them.Policies addressing migration challengesCooperation of states.States can work together in developing and implementing migration policies. These policies need to address issues such as protection of migrant rights. This can only be successful if states work together otherwise it would be impossible to implement such a policy with only some states complying. States need to develop laws and regulation that ensures that migrants get good working conditions and wages commensurate their skills. In the United Arab Emirates, there hasn’t been any law that protects migrant workers until in 2017, when Dubai adopted a law according domestic workers rights for the first time albeit lower compared to other worker’s rights. States also need to come up with channels for migrants to report any problems they might face in the receiving states. This can be achieved through strengthening of their respective consulates. The Tanzanian consulates in the Middle Eastern countries lack the capacity to assist their citizens who seek their assistance. The Tanzanian government is working on ways to prevent exploitation of its population in the Middle East. (HRW, 2017)States are adopting policies which seek to provide information to their citizens. This include programs such as pre-departure workshops which have an aim of sensitizing the citizens on issues of the law and culture of the receiving states. This ensures that citizens are educated on their rights and know what is expected of them in the country they’re moving to. This has been done in Kenya with the assistance of the International Organization for Migration. They work closely with the refugee camps, Dadaab and Kakuma. They run programs such as Pre-departure orientation, pre-departure health assistance to prepare migrants to live in a third country. They also provide transportation for the migrants curbing the issue of illegal migration and migrant smuggling. The IOM also works with the Youth Enterprise Development Fund and the Ministry of Youth and Sports to conduct pre-departure orientation sessions predominantly for youth labor migrants to the Middle East. (IOM Kenya, 2017)Migration policies in most countries had previously not been very clear. With the recent rise in the number of migrants in the last decade for economic reasons or asylum seeking, countries have reviewed their migration policies. In Kenya for instance, a migration policy document was drafted in 2013 by the immigration department. It was however not implemented until March 2017 when the National Coordination Mechanism on Migration held a meeting with stakeholders reviewed the country’s migration policy. The draft policy addresses certain issue that have been a challenge to Kenya. For instance, to address the issue of porous borders it prescribed increased surveillance of borders and ports. The policy also takes into consideration the sustainable development goals and is woven around them. (IOM Kenya, 2017)Recruitment mechanisms can be established by states in cooperation to address certain issues such as matching labor demand. States can work together to ensure that labor migrants leaving their countries are matched to employment in the receiving states. Preferential treatment can also be prescribed to discourage illegal migration. This can include incentives such as first consideration while giving jobs to migrants who used legal means to get into a country as opposed to those who got in illegally. Italy worked with Egypt in implementing the Integrated Migration Information System (IMIS), a database that provides information about jobs in Italy and matches Egyptian labor migrants with employers in Italy. Following a bilateral agreement on migration with Spain, Ecuador in collaboration with the IOM established the Technical Unit for the Selection of Migrant Workers (UTSM). UTSM matches Ecuadorians to Spanish employment opportunities (IOM 2006).States can adopt migration policies that are not stringent to encourage legal migration practices and address the issues of mixed migration, human trafficking and migrant smuggling.  These include policies that promote integration and return of migrants to their countries of origin. The receiving states can use incentives to promote return of migrants to their home countries. Such programs have been used by countries such as Japan between April 2009 and March 2010. Japan used financial incentive to promote the return of migrants.  93% of those who participated during the period were from Brazil. (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs)Addressing the causes of migration is also another policy solution to challenges posed by migration. Economic factors are among the leading causes of migration. States can put in place systems to address these issues. For instance the Kenyan government created the Youth and Development Fund for its young population which was facing the problem of unemployment. This is a program that funds income generating and job creation projects by the Kenyan youth. Civil instability and war is also among the factors which lead to migration. People flee their countries in droves and seek refuge in neighboring countries. In Eastern Africa region there has been an increase in the number of Somali refugees in Kenya due to the protracted conflict in Somalia and also South Sudanese refugees in Uganda following the civil war. Peace and security are necessary for development to take place. When states that were previously unstable regain peace, their citizens abroad are likely to return. States can develop diaspora policies to ensure that their national abroad remain in touch with their country. Through such initiatives the diaspora can participate in their government for instance in elections. Keeping the diaspora fraternity informed about what is happening in their countries of origin encourages them to invest in the development of the country. The Kenya Diaspora Alliance organizes the Kenya Diaspora Homecoming Convention annually to discuss ways in which the diaspora and other actors can facilitate the country’s economic growth, promote bilateral and multilateral ties and democracy. States can also benefit from the diaspora by tapping from them the skills and knowledge they acquire in other countries.Regional economic integration plays a key role in addressing issues of illegal border crossings migrant smuggling. Regional economic blocs are adopting policies that encourage economic growth and development among their members. Liberalization of trade and removal of trade barriers has been adopted by a number of blocs. This has in turn led   to the removal of strict migration laws that prohibit the free movement of citizens within these regions. For instance in East Africa, efforts have been put in place within member states of the East African Community to allow citizens to move and trade freely. East Africans once the policy has been implemented fully by all member states would only be required to use their national identity card to cross borders within the region.Creation of well-structured systems to monitor migrants. These include putting in place registration mechanisms to keep track of migrants. States should also invest in issuance of standard travel documents like visas, work permits, passports, and temporary passes.ConclusionFor this policies to be effective there is need for states to work with each other as well as with non-state actors and institutions like regional economic blocs and international organizations to realize fully the benefits of international migration. Systems need to be put in place to address the growing challenges in migration and also tap into the developmental opportunities presented by migration for states.BibliographyCastles, Stephen and Mark J. Miller (2004); The era of migration. International movements in the modern world, Autonomous University of Zacatecas, Ministry of the Interior, National Institute of Migration, Colosio Foundation and Porrua Editorial.ECLAC (2006); International migration, human rights and development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Summary and conclusions (LC/G.2303(SES.31/11), Santiago, Chile, 9 March. Mark R. Rosenzweig (2005); Consequences of Migration for Developing CountriesExecutive Council Ninth Ordinary Session 25 – 29 June 2006 Banjul, the Gambia: The Migration Policy Framework for AfricaInternational Organization for MigrationInternational Organization for Migration KenyaHuman Rights Watch