More as hesees the last few ” right-wingers, anti

More than 1.5 million people were directly or indirectly killed, and the chinese government almostcollapsed. China and her people paid a heavy price for the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution,an outrageous revolution launched by Mao against the govern systems he himself created, as hesees the last few ” right-wingers, anti revolutionists and revisionists” to be in the party powerstructure itself. After considering the rectification movement on CCP(Chinese communist Party)officials between 1942 and 1944 a failure, and gaining full control of China in 1949 only made themmore decayed and corrupted. In Mao’s opinion, the best solution is not to rectify the party fromwithin by himself, but instead put aside his govern system, and through direct contact with thepopulation, use the mass crowd to supervise and manage the government officials and the powerstructure. It was one of the events in Chinese History which caused such serious consequences ina span of 10 years. Within the current political structure that China has, most of the availablehistorical documents of the event are being censored, and most officially released files are alwayschanged according how it is going to benefit the CCP’s rule over China. Which made the CulturalRevolution one of the most controversial topic to China and the rest of the world. Mainly threestakeholders are involved: CCP, chinese citizens who live in china, and researchers from othercountries. I will be focusing on the Ideology aspect of the event.”Marxism comprises many principles, but in the final analysis they can all be brought back to asingle sentence: it is right to rebel.” This was part of Mao’s speech during Joseph Stalin’s 60thbirthday. This was later known to every single Chinese as part of Maoism. This quote from Maowas first publicly used by the Red Guards of the Tsinghua University High school in theirrevolutionary posters. It impressed Mao very much as it suites the environment that he is trying tocreate for an event like the Cultural Revolution to happen. Upon seeing that poster, Mao was surethat he once again came back to be the god and savior that the chinese people think he is.(Mao’spopularity and power dropped significantly after The Great Leap Forward which caused anestimated of 48 million deaths.) Mao immediately wrote a letter back to the Tsinghua UniversityHigh school students praising their courage and devotion towards the country and the revolution.When Mao’s letter was publicized, it caused a great reaction within the country,as chairman Maohad approved their will to rebell or even change the government. No matter educated or noteducated, everyone spontaneously joined the revolution. Millions of youngsters rushed to BeijingTiananmen Square just to see Mao and listen to his speech, and declared themselves as the “RedGuards” . Meanwhile thousands of “Five Black Classes” (Landlords, Capitalist, anti-revolutionists,criminals and right-wingers) were being criticized and beaten by Red Guards, death was acommon thing. Victims ranges from ordinary peasants to high ranking official in Beijing, evenChairman of The National People’s Congress – Liu Shaoqi, and Grand General of the PLA – LuoRuiqing. “The Little Red Book” which is another name for Mao’s Book of Quotations became Bible-like among the Chinese people, whoever does not learn or memorize it will be classified under rightwing anti- revolutionists. Due to high pressure from the people above and around, everyone isapplying Mao’s Quotes to almost everything.The quote that I mentioned earlier was one of the core ideas of Maoism, it has close ties withMao’s personalities and his political philosophy. Maoism was mainly developed from Mao Zedongin the 1930s. It revolves around Marxism and Leninism, but can be differentiated by being moreradical and direct. Maoism can be summarized into eight main points.- Dialectical Materialism.If we break them apart into “Dialectical”, “Materialism”, it is much easier to comprehend. Dialecticshere states that everything has sides that are antithetical, which is the driving force for it to change,evolve and finally dissolves. Therefore, nothing last eternally. Secondly, Materialism, defined byKarl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is that the world is based on matter, that the material world that weknow exists by using our senses has objective reality independent to our mind or spirits. Onlythrough material conditions, then our ideas or thought may rise as products and reflections. Nowwe put them back together again, Dialectical Materialism uphold the material basis of aphenomenon frequently changing in a dialectical process and the preference of matter overmentality.- Marxism-Leninism Political Economics.It is a historical and social theory which states that production relation determines all other socialrelations. Productive capacity or power and an economic bases essentially determines progressand construction, which ideas and social institution is built upon. Historical Materialism therefore isthe idea and social institution superstructure on top of a material economic base.- Theory with Practice.Mao aimed to link Marxism theories with the status quo of China, to achieve a effect which issubjective and objective at the same time.- Mass Line.It was a theory constructed by Mao and the CCP during the Chinese Revolution. The core elementof this is consulting the crowd, then modify these suggestions under structures of Marxism andLeninism , then establish it as a policy. Mao once said:”All for the masses, everything depends onthe masses, from the masses, and among the masses”- Scientific Socialism.This form of Socialism?(as contrast to Utopian Socialism) is based on scientific facts, that itstheories are held under empirical standards. Through a scientific approach, if new phenomenonsare observed, principles of the theory may be changed.- Eliminate Classes Through Class Struggle.In transforming China into a communist utopia, Mao see classes as the second?most symbolicremnants of Capitalism after private-properties. Since the CCP came into power in 1949, untilMao’s death in 1976, Class Struggle led by mao never stopped. Mao said:” Not mentioning classstruggle does not mean there should not be class struggle!”- It Is Right to Rebel.It might be misleading for those who does not fully understand this idea. In fact, this was whatactually happened during the Cultural Revolution. As I had mentioned earlier about DialecticalMaterialism, Mao is a strong believer of that theory, so he believes that phenomenon frequentlychange in a dialectical process. There will always be upper class and lower class, unless classesare eliminated through Class Struggle. Therefore, the lower classes will always be exploited andpressed, because it will be merely impossible for the lower class to exploit the upper class. So withresources at the upper class’s disposal, and if they fail to manage it properly to satisfy the lowerclasses, the lower classes will obviously rebel against them. (No one would rebel unless they aretreated unfairly) However, I personally think this this idea is rather too crude and radical.- United Front.United Front theory was founded by Vladimir Lenin, modified and taken into practice widely byMao. It is when two parties or organizations joining alliance for a common cause. used by Maoduring the Sino-Japanese war, in alliance with the KMT (Kuomintang), against Imperial Japan.Later during the Chinese Civil war, CCP in alliance with the working class, against the KMT”Imperialists”. It was again picked up and used during the Cultural Revolution, with the students inalliance with the working class against revisionists, right-wingers and anti-revolutionists.Mao Zedong was confident that when his way of thinking, Maoism is applied to China, and put intopractice, he should be not far from creating a Communist utopia. However, he was wrong. As theCultural Revolution reached its 2 year mark, it totally sprung out of control. Millions of red Guardsflooded the street, smashing anything that they think is anti-revolutionary and Old-fashioned, whichthey call “Four Olds” – Old Customs, Old Culture, Old Habits and Old Ideas. The Central RevolutionGroup, led by Mao’s former secretary Chen Boda, and Mao’s fourth wife Jiang Qing, brought theCultural Revolution to the climax. Due to their hunger for power, the revolution is no longerrevolutionary, but instead the members of the Central Revolutionary Group are using it as a way forthem to rise higher in the CCP hierarchy. However in 1976, when Mao died in Zhongnanhai due toa heart attack, core members of the Central Revolution Group(Later known as Gang of Four) werearrested and trialed. The Cultural Revolution came to an end. After Deng Xiaoping came to powerin 1978, the 6th Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the CCP was held in 1981,where solutions for the problem since the founding of PRC was discussed. During one of hisspeeches, Deng claimed:” The Cultural Revolution was a civil conflict that was wrongly launchedby leaders and was used by counter-revolutionary groups and brought serious disasters to theparty, state and people of all backgrounds. The harm caused was comprehensive and serious. Ithas been proved that the “Cultural Revolution” is completely wrong in theory and in practice. Itcannot and will never be revolutionary in any sense or social progress.”