Mobile computing’s goal
is to actually familiarize the mobile users by providing the seamless and a rich
functionality, regardless of those resource limitations of the mobile devices.
Although still in its infancy, mobile cloud computing could become the dominant
model for mobile applications in the future. Wireless and mobile computing
technologies provide more possibilities for accessing services conveniently.
Mobile devices will be improved in terms of power, CPU, and storage. Mobile
cloud computing has actually emerged as a new paradigm and the extension of
cloud computing. For future research, there are still some challenging issues
related to the models of mobile cloud computing and services. Mobile devices
are constrained in storage and processing capacity. Definitions of mobile
cloud computing can be divided into two classes. The first refers to carrying
out data storage and processing outside mobile devices. Mobile devices are
simply terminals in cloud computing, only intended to provide a more convenient
way of accessing services in the cloud. The benefit of this is that storage and
computing limitations of mobile devices are avoided, and a new level of
security is provided by centralizing maintenance of security-critical software.
The second class of definitions refers to computing where data storage and
processing are also carried out on mobile devices. The infrastructure of the
cloud is different from that of data-center”pay-as-you-use “cloud computing.
Each node is owned by a different user and is likely to be mobile. Using mobile
hardware for cloud computing has advantages over using traditional hardware.
These advantages include computational access to multimedia and sensor data
without the need for large network transfers, more efficient access to data
stored on other mobile devices, and distributed ownership and maintenance of
Mobile applications are
becoming an integral part of society in various domains and disciplines –
education, commerce, health/wellness, and transportation to name a few.
Realization of these applications at scale is challenging – developers and
stakeholders are faced with constraints that arise from multiple factors
including limited resources on the mobile phone, lack of consistent
communication bandwidth, security and privacy, etc. In this section we
highlight some key classes of mobile applications and articulate constraints
that reduce user experience and consequently limit their large scale
deployment. Mobile learning by orchestrating mobile computing and cloud
computing, we project a paradigm shift in “delivery of education” that can
impact learning behaviours and accessibility of educational opportunities.
Mobile learning could be described as, using mobile technology to improve or
augment people knowledge, skills and behaviour through education, training, or
performance anytime and anywhere. Mobile learning adds a new level of
portability to the learning process through the use of tablets and smart
devices; like other e-learning systems, mobile learning is collaborative as
well. Mobile commerce Today, mobile devices are being used extensively in
business and commerce for a wide range of purposes. The obvious traditional
m-commerce applications include mobile transactions and payments, mobile
tickets and advertisements through messaging services (SMS or MMS messages).
The mobile cloud setting provides a flexible platform for a broader notion of
m-commerce; we discuss two emerging classes of mcommerce applications. In the
first class, many free popular mobile applications are being used to deliver
advertisements. The cloud system provides a lot of QoS guaranteed services like
infrastructure, platform, hardware, software and the storage to different
Internet application and users.
Framework: cloud computing systems actually
can be considered as a collection of different services, thus the framework of
cloud computing is divided into three layers, which are infrastructure layer,
platform layer, and application layer.
layer: it includes resources of computing and storage. In the bottom layer of
the framework, physical devices and hardware, such as servers and storages are
virtualized as a resource pool to provide computing storage and network
b) Platform layer: this
layer is considered as a core layer in the cloud computing system, which
includes the environment of parallel programming design, distributed storage
and management system for structured data, distributed file system for mass
data, and other system management tools for cloud computing.
c) Application layer:
this layer provides some simple software and applications, as well as costumer
interfaces to end users. Thus we name this type of services in the application. Mobile Cloud Computing
(MCC) is being emerged as one of the most important branches of cloud
computing. In the few past years, the cloud computing
frameworks like the Amazon Web Services, Windows Azure and Google AppEngine have
become popular among all the IT developers and organizations. Simultaneously, there
is a phenomenal increase in usage and the deployment of the smart phone
platforms and the applications worldwide.
The increasing usage of
the mobile computing is very much evident by the study by Juniper Research,
which states that consumer and the enterprise market for cloud based mobile
application is being raised to $9.5 billion till 2014. In the past years,
application targeting mobile devices have started becoming quite abundant with
application in various categories like entertainments, business, health, game, social
networking, travels and news. The popularity of these is evident by browsing
through mobile app download centres such as Apple’s iTunes or Nokia’s Ovi
suite. The reason for this is that mobile computing is able to provide a tool
to the user when and where it is needed irrespective of user movement, hence
supporting location independence. Mobility is the characteristics of a
pervasive computing environment wherethe user can continue his/her work
seamlessly regardless of his/her movement. However, with the mobility come all its
inherent problems like the resource scarceness, finite energy and the low
connectivity problems. These pose problems of executing so many useful programs
that could really aid the user and create a pervasive environment. According to
Tim O’Reilly ‘the future always belongs to service that responds in real time
to the information provided either by the users or by the sensor’. The real
time applications are the type of mobile application demanding high levels of
responsiveness, in turn which demands intensive computing resource.