Licsun WongYoung 222 January 2018Chapter 18 QuestionsThe changes in family life during the late 1800s was that there was a decrease in birth rate, usage of contraceptive methods, and switching roles of daughters. In the 1800s, women usually had about 7.0 children but by the turn of the century, it plummeted to a mere 3.6 children. Children worked in factories at a young age and parents had fewer kids to concentrate resources. Also, mothers waited longer to be married and spaced out the children in order to nurse the children well. Some contraceptive methods include condoms and diaphragms, leading to fewer births. However, the Comstock Act was established by Anthony Comstock which prohibited the circulation of any information about birth control and intercourse. Daughters traditionally provided essential labor of weaving clothes but were relocated from households to factories. And daughters found themselves as useless and sought for paid employment in the cities. Many boys sought a high school education, especially those from knowledge families and hoping to enter a technical or professional work of some sort. In order to educate themselves for office work or teaching, people prioritized work before marriage. In schools, students were taught literature, composition, history, geography, sciences, mathematics, and modern language. Usually, boys and girls acted civilly, but sometimes, they were rivals, where girls would outcompete the boys by receiving more academic prizes. In the beginning, girls were recruited as cheerleaders and boys established hockey and some other team of their own. Booker T. Washington founded Tuskegee, one of the most well known educational projects in the south. Washington exemplified the goal of self-help, concluded that book education was a waste of time and focused on industrial education instead. Since giving an industrial education will allow the citizens to know how to make a living by themselves. Also, Washington believed that money was color blind in the sense of economic success and expected that through education, diligence, and respectability, it would erase the white prejudice. Unfortunately, his optimism was quickly shattered as there was a tide of disenfranchisement, segregation and lynching towards the end of the 19th-century. Many educated black men became targets of white anger. Vassar college was established in 1861, where it implemented a strict regimen of regular exercise, nutritious meals, naps, and curfews to ensure that students stayed healthy. Single-sex education for women spread to both public and private institutions, especially in the South. Despite the fact that women in same-sex schools formed strong relationships with each other, women in coeducational colleges were benefitted by learning and competing with men. When men tried to be hostile, women coped by taking up paid employment or reform work. As college education became more and more popular, women saw “solitude in self”. The booming economy created more opportunities and danger for both genders, which rewarded them with mobility. Modern economists claim that education might be the key to solve poverty in third world countries. Also, as women earned higher degrees, it made denying women’s rights to vote harder and classifying them as dependents. In the late 1800s, YMCA, America’s Game, Negro Leagues, and American football grew to become more popular. YMCA combined vigorous activities for young men with an evangelizing appeal and exercised to keep themselves clean and strong. Also, to promote masculinity for white-collar workers to hopefully help the workers adjust their bodies to the demands of the clock and stopwatch and enhancing performance on the job. America’s game started with Walter Johnson being signed by the Washington senators and became one of the greatest pitchers in baseball history. The sport started in the 1800s but didn’t become popular until it spread in military camps during the civil war. Baseball was seen as being received by its baptism in the bloody days our Nation’s poorest danger. Baseball provided a workout and fresh air, kept workers out of bars, and generate some discipline and cooperation skills. Towards the end of the 19th-century, Charlie Grant was signed by managers from major leagues but the manager was threatened, making the manager terminating the contract. The segregation of the sport emerged during the Reconstruction. The segregated teams endured rundown fields until the desegregation shortly after the world war two. Enduring the segregation displayed talent and manhood in black men. The last sport that gained its popularity in the 1800s was American Football. It first started at the prestigious Ivy League schools during the late 1800s, where it taught students to move with machinelike efficiency. Football coaches saw the sport as perfect training for the future competitive world of business. Soon later, all of the sports attracted companies willing to sponsor them and the sports were to develop strength and skills. The lavish Victorian way of living started to die out in the late 1800s, instead, it was replaced by leisure near parks, lakes, biking, and camping in the woods. Seeking the outdoors was seen as a renewal rather than danger and painful working since nature allowed people to clear their minds and have a different outlook on life. The American system expanded its park systems through Theodore Roosevelt, who extended the reach of national forests. Right after Theodore was Wilson, where he signed the National Park Service. Soon, there was a total of thirteen national parks that were increasingly trendy places to camp, hike, and enjoy mother nature. Preservation conducted through the Lacey Act in 1906, where it allowed the president to set aside the objects of historic and scientific interests as national monuments. Some parks include the Arizonian Grand Canyon and Main Arcadia. John Muir sought to support the environmental movement and established the Sierra Club. Congress sought to preserve the fish and sea lions in Alaska and wild birds in Audubon societies. States started to pass laws that regulated hunting and fishing, redefining it as recreational instead of subsistence. Sadly, recreational hunting season brought hardship to many poor rural families who depend on game meat for food. P.T. Barnum created one of the most successful commercial domesticity by showcasing family entertainments for all audiences and featured female performers in Barnum’s circus shows to emphasize respectability and refinement. Another was Boston’s South Terminal Station where it had all the amenities, like women with babies and drawing rooms. The railcars designed by the Pullman Company of Chicago set a national standard for taste and elegance by placing luxurious carpets and fine furnishing. Department stores attracted middle-class women by offering them children’s area, tearooms, and appealing features. Soon, women became the primary family shopper. The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union was founded in 1874 with Frances Willard being the leader who advocated for the prohibition of liquor. Willard demanded society with a language of feminine self-sacrifice and by graphically describing famine, beating of family members caused by husbands who were controlled by alcoholism, which then created Willard’s motto of “Home Protection”. Middle-class people somewhat saw the linkage between alcoholism and crime and when immigrants start to fill the nation. As Willard’s ideology started to spread, liquor was equated to the sin of prostitution, political corruption, and public disorder. Also, denominations like Baptists, Methodists, and Mormons strictly prohibited drinking. Bars attracted lowerclassmen by offering cheap or free lunch and public toilets. Not only did WCTU prohibit liquor, it also investigated alcohol abuse by establishing soup kitchens and easy accessing of the library. Willard agreed with the Knights of Labor’s eight hour work day and attempted to abolish child labor. Since liquor dominated many businesses, it started to block prohibition party and antiliquor legislation. Despite Willard’s death, her legacy didn’t die and as more anti-liquor campaigns increased, those institutions won a constitutional amendment prohibiting the sales of intoxicating liquors. The national American Suggrage Association won two victories including Colorado in 1893 and Idaho in 1896. Although Congress refused to take up a constitutional amendment for voting rights, many women living west of the Mississippi River had the right to vote by 1913. Women were viewed as proper leaders because they had knowledge of their own power through education. Shortly after the Civil War, Members of the Daughters of the American Revolution founded in 1890, a group where they celebrated the heroes in the Revolutionary war but rejected African American. Another group was called the United Daughters of the Confederacy, which was founded in 1894 and cherished the memories of the SOuth’s lost cause. The group played a central role in molding America’s view of the Civil War. The group decided to start a campaign to edit textbooks in 1894, where the group adding information about how the Confederacy played a noble effort, Freeman are lesser than others, and the Reconstruction was a waste. In order to face the rejection, the National Association of Colored women was created in 1896, where it focused its attention on building a community of support. The club cared for orphans, built homes for their elders, and started public health campaigns. Even Victoria Mathews, a Black journalist, praised the group was the glory of the republic. In 1906, the National Baptist Church was founded and promoted education, hygiene, establishments of daycares, and support system for incarcerated people. The idea of Domesticity became more popular overseas than in America. In 1915, many American Religious organizations sponsored thousands of missionaries overseas and millions in the missionary trips were women. The missionaries had the American style domesticity as a central part of Christian evangelism and emphasized the importance of sending married couples into the fields. Many missionaries had their roles as a nurse, administrator, teacher, or doctor. Also, missionaries that wished to foster Christianity had some considerable condescension toward impecunious heathen sisters. Many missionaries won their converts by offering medical care and education and respect, while some were frustrated by exclusion due to heathen races. Some of the missionaries ended up trying to justify themselves. Charles Darwin proposed the theory of natural selection where it argues that individuals are born with random mutations that better fit them in an environment and not implying upward progression. Shortly after the theory of natural selection was seen by the public, British philosopher Herbert Spencer elaborated the theory of how humans advanced through survival of the fittest and claims that millionaires were the fitness. During the time, many just saw social Darwinism as excesses of industrialization. Someone similar to Darwin, Jean Lamarck, where proposed his idea of evolution, claiming that a plant or animal acquire their traits within a single lifetime. Along with Social Darwinism, someone imposed eugenics, some annoying application of evolution that codified into new reproductive laws. Eugenicists argued that the city to sterilize those who were mentally deficient, most of the selected “mentally deficient” people were “lower races” like Asians, Blacks, and Natives. All of the arguments boiled down to racial discrimination and in hope to segregate the races. Also, some people thought that immigrants from a certain part of Europe were dilute the “pure” American population. The three movements that tried to masculinize the American culture includes realism, naturalism, and modernism. Realism was basically to rebel Romanticism and see daily lives to the most precise aspect. William Dean Howells helped lead realism and wrote The Rise of Silas Lapham in 1885. Later authors like Theodore Reiser and Stephan Crane followed. Crane wrote Maggie: A Girl of the Streets in 1893 where it talked about the death of a slum girl and Main-Travelled Roads written 1891 about a farmer struggling to farm in South Dakota and Iowa. Although Stephan Crane did follow some aspects of realism, he and Jack London helped create naturalism. The movement suggested the human race weren’t rational agents and shapers of their own destinies but find victims of forces beyond their control, like temptations and impulses. Jack London reflected the movement through The Law of Life in 1901 and To Build a Fire in 1908 where the two stories dramatized the harsh reality of the draining society. Samuel Langhorne Clemens also followed the movement, who was known for writing the famous works like Innocents Abroad in 1869, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer in 1876, and the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in 1884. When Clemens died, modernism came to arise, where it rejected traditional practices of literary taste but replaced it with a primitive mind. By 1900, photographers said that the rise of photography made paintings useless. Robert Henry along with John Sloan was dubbed as Ash Can School for not showing the beauty of the city but instead showed the dark side of the city. In 1913, the Armory Show hosted realists in the National Guard building in New York, where the show experimented cubism or abstract art. Pablo Picasso and Marcel Duchamp participated. More than a quarter of a million crowded to see the show although it was seen as revolting in their inhumanity. The era of mass immigration marked a major religious innovation and burning tensions amongst people with differing faiths. Bishop John Ireland of Saint Paul, one of the more influential Catholic leaders at the time, said that principles of the Church are in harmony with the interests of the public. Sadly, his optimism was soon to be proved by the denied harmony but rejection from pluralistic Americans. Poverty and overtimes didn’t allow people to leave time for faith and new consumer pleasures offered somewhere else. The newly arrived Catholics tried to speak their languages, remember their customs, and establish their own parochial schools. American Jewish people soon embraced Reform Judaism and avoided keeping a kosher kitchen and conducting services in He drew, but preserved the traditions by establishing Orthodox Synagogues in vacant stores, and practice Judaism at home. During the modern era, Protestants enlisted in foreign missions and evangelizing among the unchurched and indifferent. Reading rooms, day nurseries, vocation classes, and services were funded by the church. All the dedication to public welfare was known as SOcial Gospel. Another example was the Salvation Army, where it came from Britain in 1879 to spread the message of repentance to the poor and funded assisting programs that ranged from soup kitchens to shelters for former prostitutes. But in the twentieth century, it focused on raising money by ringing bells and sold used clothes to support the organization’s work. The third way protestants adapted was through the Niagara Creed, where it reaffirmed the literal truth of the bible and the certainty of damnation for those not born in Christ. All of which led to fundamentalism, belief in the fundamental truth of the Bible and focused on redemption. In order to promote the idea, Billy Sunday provided mass entertainment and chance to see a baseball player thing. (Organized local businessmen into baseball teams). Sunday shamed unrestricted immigration, labor radicalism, and child labor.