Lean Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While there is undoubtedly

       Lean Manufacturing/Process

 Assignment #1

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Value Stream Mapping to reduce food losses and wastes in                               supply chains: A
systematic review










Brijrajsinh Bihola

id.: 104646483


1. Describing the problem:

The year 2016 is witness to the begin of the worldwide challenge
for achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While there is
undoubtedly the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) quickened progress in
battling hunger and lack of healthy sustenance in the vicinity of 2000 and
2015, the significant danger to food security in the SDG-time is required to be
strengthened by population growth and unfavorable climatic changes.
Furthermore, although expanding food production which is frequently considered
as a key solution, it comes at a high cost i.e. using the already rare
resources, for example, clean water, land, protected areas and woods, that are
essential for a healthy environment and biodiversity. Since 33% of food created is lost or wasted along the
supply chain, committed endeavors should be coordinated toward the execution of
inventive measures from farm to fork, in this way not just guaranteeing the
conveyance of critical amounts of food, additionally holding the level of
supplements in those foods. In this unique circumstance, literature recognizes
”food losses”, a reduction in food mass happening during production,
postharvest and preparing from ”food wastes”, any raw or cooked food mass
that is disposed of at retail and utilization. Together,
they are defined as ”food supply chain losses”, alluding to each phase
along the chain where a given extent of food that is at first implied for
utilization does not achieve the planned customer. From a monetary perspective,
activities that handle food losses and wastes(FLW) are not just valuable to
those food producers planning to offer all the more, additionally to customers
who could save money as the accessible food turns out to be more affordable,
and upgrade their energy and nutrient intake, when likewise quality misfortunes
in food would be tended to demonstrates that diminishment of FLW can possibly
bring down food costs especially for net food consumers however not net food
makers. Thus, FLW decrease endeavors in developed nations may bring down food
prices in developing nations, saved resources that can be utilized to feed a hungry
population and accelerate efficiency along their supply chains.

2. A summary
description of the current state map:

A study of the food losses and wastes was conducted in food
chains. Even though diminishment in food losses and wastes are said to possibly
enhance availability to nutritious foods among needy families, there is must
better address food and nutrient losses or wastes all the while to achieve a
portion of the SDGs. Above all else, perishable items that are exceptionally
nutritious, for example, vegetables, fruits, dairy, meat and fish, are
regularly more inclined to loss and wastage along the supply chain than staple
foods, like grains. Post-harvest losses in such foods are singled out as an
element that influences accessibility and availability to poor people.
Second, through diminishing weight or size of edible
parts of plants or animals, an expected 25% loss of accessible calories in the
long run are not consumed. At the point when half of such FLW along the supply
chain would be lessened, the nutritional requirements of around 63 million
undernourished individuals from developing areas would be met. What’s more,
food processing exercises, for example, improper peeling and slicing are known
to prompt to quantitative FLW, as well as compromise of the micronutrient
quality. Vitamin C and A, for instance, are effortlessly lost in fresh cut
fruits when contrasted with entire fruits because of the preparing operations.
This approach of handling both food and nutrient losses, can reinforce agriculture-nutrition
linkages and eventually add to food and nutrition security.

3.What kind of wastes reduced
or eliminated?

There were four kind of wastes eliminated,

1. Defects in product:

This lean waste was available at all four supply chain hotspots
and was related with discarded of food. In a                    study analysis a pork chain,
off base weight and fat levels at primary production were considered as product
imperfections. Also, absconds in food processing organizations emerged from poor/overtopping,
over baking, variation in size and shape, breakages in the generation of bread,
scrap or low quality in peach, biscuit, pork wine, tea and edible oil creation.
Further, microbial decay related with short time span of usability as an imperfection
at processing resulted about because of redundant taking care of by operators,
contact with polluted surfaces and cooling at a moderate rate. Defects
additionally happened amid storage in a study where food was exposed to
ambient  temperature for delayed periods. . With respect to food
service, wrong meal service in hospital kitchens and jumbling of customized
requirements for customers at fast food eateries constitute defects. For the
situation where overbaked products were disposed of in a study including bread
manufacture, it is more probable that heat labile micronutrients were likewise



2. Unnecessary inventory: 

At the farm level, unused stock could be discarded as waste coming
full circle from a questionable supply of raw materials used to produce edible
oil and the utilization of a push framework production of pork. . This was more or less
similar in food processing companies in situations where there was an
accumulation of either raw materials or finished products more than required,
where excess stock was retained to act as a buffer against poor quality
products and when purchase of raw materials in small quantities was either
impossible or they remained unused.


3. Over production:

As a lean waste, overproduction was obvious amid food processing
and food service for moderately same reasons i.e. misalignment of creation with
purchaser interest for ready to eat food and poor demand gauges where food was
generally produced without requests in a hospital kitchen respectively.
Therefore, abundance food could be thrown away.


4. Inappropriate processing:

Mostly amid food processing in three studies, did this waste
happen incorporating incorrect topping, overbaking and unstandardized cutting,
poor planning of cutting operation and incorrect forming with misfortune
preparing materials (frying oil and crumbs). The supplement losses that could
happen at this stage were primarily because of overbaking of bread, unseemly
peeling, washing and pasteurization of peaches.


4. What procedures were followed
to improve the process? What Lean Manufacturing tools were used to improve the


In view of a precise review approach, this study is viewed as the
first to aggregate and examine evidence on the use of VSM in the agri-food
industry. Along these lines, particular consideration was given to the
capability of VSM to be consolidated with different strategies focusing on the
elimination of FLW, and also its flexibility for distinguishing proof and
measuring nutrient losses.


A full paper study was performed where a more stringent
incorporation criteria was connected. Concentrates that used VSM as (one of)
the Lean tool(s) were held to constitute the systematic study. Further a review needed
to concentrate on no at least one supply chain factor i.e. Primary producers,
processors, distributors, food service or potentially purchasers. There was no
limitation connected on whether a review went for the recognizable proof and
disposal of losses and wastes. Studies that did not expressly inspect this were
incorporated, as regardless they connected VSM with components that can be
related with loss and waste distinguishing proof and elimination.

 A data extraction sheet was designed in light of looked into
studies, particularly for Lean Manufacturing and agri-food information.
Notwithstanding study attributes ordinarily announced in systematic reviews and
after performing a pilot test extraction, the sheet was utilized to
systematically record and code essential information from the studies. They
extricated data identified with; level of analysis, focused on supply chain
factor, sort of food item, nation, year of distribution, study design,
technique for information gathering, use of VSM (state maps, other lean tools,
lean metrics and use of simulation), kind of-and reason behind waste. With respect to Lean
metrics (e.g. lead time, takt time, cycle time and number of operators),
execution change was figured in light of the distinction between the present
and future state, and communicated as far as a percentage reduction in a given
metric. These components encouraged the formulation of a comprehensive narrative
with an overview of chose studies as for their attributes, use of VSM and the
reported food or nutrient. losses and wastes. Quality evaluation of included
reviews was performed by adjusting an approved methodological scoring system
created for appraisal of qualitative, quantitative and mixed techniques


The appraisal utilized five parameters, that were viewed as
significant to the present study, as characterized by the scoring system (Table
1). Concentrates included scored moderately well on quality i.e.the average
quality score from all reviews was 4 of a most extreme score of 5. No review
was prohibited based a quality score, rather insufficiencies with utilization
of VSM philosophy were talked about in their discoveries Of the twenty four
reviews, nineteen connected VSM in a solitary. Agri-food plant setting, of which
fifteen concentrated on a food processing company, delivering; bread, ready to
eat foods, peaches, wine, mango juice, ketchup, yogurt, biscuit, coffee,
snacks, nougat or tea. Besides, examines on single chain individuals focused on
the food service division, i.e. two hospital kitchens conveying a variety of
food, for example, bread, soups and processed vegetable versus fast food
restaurants, or a food warehouse. Five reviews have investigated more than one
component along food chain. While the review by analyzed a beef producing farm
and processing factory, four different reviews additionally incorporated a
retailer, e.g. in a chain producing lamb and pork, or both distributer and
retailer, i.e.  in an edible oil supply


Application of VSM,
additional lean tools and performance indicators:

With respect to utilization of VSM in a given agri-food context
(Table 2), majority of studies utilized a mapping technique and created both
present and future state maps i.e. ten studies at the single plant level and
two studies at the supply chain level. Despite the fact that state maps were by
and large graphically represented, two extra reviews just portrayed the present
and future states. There were six reviews that exclusive utilized the current
state map and one review that gave a portrayal of the present situation at a
single plant level, against three studies at a supply chain level. Aside from
three reviews, all the case investigations with both maps utilized lead time,
takt time as well as number of operators as Lean Manufacturing metrics to
figure execution upgrades in food production process. At a single plant level, correlation amongst present and future situations
brought about a reduction of 3–83% (lead time), 2% (takt time) and 7–40%
(number of operators) among processors. A decrease of 83% and 75% in lead time
at storage and utilization, respectively, was additionally watched. One study
directed at a supply chain level delineated a lessening of 93% in lead time.
Among those studies that included only present state mapping, four announced a
related lead time, one cycle time while four reviews detailed none. At last,
just a single review did not report any Lean metric.

For consistent improvement (i.e. Kaizen), a prerequisite for
accomplishing targets in lean Manufacturing, some of extra tools were used
either alone or in blend in different agri-food entities. Just-In-Time (JIT) or
pull strategy was the most applied with VSM in nine studies at both levels of
investigation. 5S (sort, set in order, shine, standardize and sustain) approach
was essentially utilized as a part of six studies at a single plant level as it
were. Other Lean tools utilized included Kanban, visual aids and cellular
manufacturing including a redesign of fast food restaurants in view of two
distinct client needs. While all reviews used the VSM approach and related
tools to some degree, five reviews additionally coordinated a simulation
modelling technique in their analysis.


5. Describe the solution to
the problem:

Two types of food supply chain losses and wastes (i.e. discard and
nutrient loss) and related causes identified with food and nutrition were
recognized. Accordingly, disposed of food is mainly credited to defects, wrong
processing, unnecessary inventory and overproduction waste categories as
portrayed in Lean Manufacturing. Thusly, the relationship between
non-conformance to specifications and defects in food items is expressly
highlighted in the agri-food industry. In concurrence with past studies, different types of avoidable FLW
that happen along the supply chain are especially clarified by disappointment
of disposed of food items to match particular quality standards i.e. deviations
in size, weight, shape, breakages and shortened shelf life because of microbial
contamination, like our discoveries. Besides, exercises performed amid
preparing of food capably cause losses and wastes particularly on the off
chance that operations and equipment utilized are not standardized. This points to a need
to introduce process controls not only amid internal processing as well as
stretch out them to other supply chain operations keeping in mind the end goal
to accomplish a comprehensive lessening of waste. Having overabundance food
stock or preparing more amounts of food than required because of poor demand
forecasting is additionally highlighted as a developing and major source of
food waste in both developed and developing nations. In lean manufacturing, pull
strategy that underlies Just-In-Time production principle encourages the start
of a production procedure in view of existing demand, which thus counteracts
overproduction and accumulation of inventory. All things considered, food producers and additionally other chain
factors ought to be urged to arrange and concentrate on increasing critical
awareness with customer behavior, needs and inclinations beforehand, in order
to dependably forecast food demand among target markets as recommend. This and
other food surplus administration practices, for example, donation for food
help can contribute toward the battle against food insecurity. Similarly, in
the food service industry, a past study by Betz et al. (2015), shows the
significance of creating awareness among staff and clients about causes for
food waste and possible mitigation approaches, which additionally highlights
the need to consider the utilization level as a major aspect of the supply

Food processing strategies may profoundly affect the nutrient
content of food and instances when heat treatment is connected to food items
were underpinned in the discoveries i.e. overbaking and pasteurization may come
about into loss of thermal labile micronutrients. Past reviews demonstrate that
nutrients, for example, thiamine, vitamin A and C are lost when over the top
heat is connected as well as with humble heat treatments in the correct mix of
oxygen, light and pH. Other physical processing works on including cutting,
peeling, milling and even more so if joined by washing additionally conceivably
result into micronutrient losses. This infers VSM couldn’t just be viable at
recognizing FLW but also nutrient losses.


6. If you were the person
leading the process, what would you have done different. Suggest any other
tools you would have used and explain why?


If I am leading the process, I would have used below methods and
tools to reduce the food losses and other wastes of food supply chains.

To find the problem, I would have used 4M (Man, Material, Method,
Machine) and 5WHY methods to understand the root cause of the problem including
the already used methods.

To solve the problem, I would have added below two tools with
previously used tool to reduce food losses and wastes also to improve

1. Food production-verity Graph:

This Graph will give us visual map of the variety of food at each
stage of the food producing process. This can be graphically presented with the
X-axis represents the food production process and Y-axis shows number of food
items. This map will tell us the point at which food item is increasingly
becoming consumable. With the use of this tool we can suggest the logical point
at which buffer stock may be held. 

2. Value Analysis Time profile:

It is a time-based value analysis tool which takes into account
the plot of both total cost and value of the item as it moves along the supply
chain under consideration. The distinction between the total cost and value
adding line shows the cost of the wastes. The area under the total cost line
represents the amount of cash tied up in a unit of stock. It is an
exceptionally valuable tool to follow time compression or mapping where money
is being wasted.