Lauren TranPeriod 4Final Exam Study GuideFirst Semester – Ducat – 2018The chronological order of the four founding documents of the U.S. are the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights.The Great Compromise, also known as the “Connecticut Compromise,” was a conflict over the type of government for the U.S. Two plans were proposed: the New Jersey Plan and the Virginia Plan. The New Jersey Plan advocated a two-house legislature with representatives proportional to population, and the Virginia Plan advocated a one-house legislature with the same amount of representatives for all states. The Great Compromise established a two-house legislature with representatives proportional to population in the House of Representatives but with only 2 representatives from each state in Senate.The major causes of the Civil War were slavery, industry vs agriculture, and the amount of power the federal government had over the states.The Amendments created after the Civil War include the 13th, 14th, and 15th. The 13th Amendment abolished slavery; the 14th Amendment granted citizenship and full rights to every American man, regardless of race; and the 15th Amendment allowed every American to vote, regardless of race.Manifest Destiny was the belief that the American people must expand westward and outward to spread their American ideals, education, technology, and/or religion to other peoples or nations.Immigration increased the population in urban areas (cities) and increased the growth of industry since many immigrants moved to cities to work in factories.In 1906, Upton Sinclair had published The Jungle, a novel which exposed the atrocities in the meat-packing industry. As a result of his book, new meat inspection laws were established and it encouraged the work of other muckrakers.The majority of immigrants settled in northern cities between 1880 and 1920 because there was more industry, factories, and job opportunities there than in the agricultural cities of the South.Poor immigrants made neighborhoods more crowded and dirty since they all had to squeeze into tenements and couldn’t afford to live in the cleanest of ways. Immigrants also brought a lot of culture and new beliefs, though.Due to the growth of industry, more factory jobs were available. Immigrants moved into cities to work at these factories, which increased population and urbanization in these neighborhoods.After the 1890s, the majority of immigrants came from countries in southern and eastern Europe, like Italy and Russia.Many American workers were against the large amount of immigrants coming to America because this increased competition for jobs and Nativists were against all of the new culture being brought over.The push factors for immigrants coming to America include starvation, religious or political persecution, unemployment, and low economic status in their home countries. Pull factors include more jobs, more opportunity for wealth, and religious freedom.Old immigrants fit the American ideal better by having blond hair, blue eyes, fair skin, and sharing religious beliefs. New immigrants, though, had darker skin and much different religions, cuisine, or other beliefs.Tenements were the “apartment” buildings in which many immigrants lived in. They were very crowded, had little light, had no ventilation, and no sewer/sanitary system, making them very dirty.Political machines were politicians and political groups that paid others to vote for them. To win the support and votes of the immigrants, these political machines bribed the immigrants with money and other rewards.Social Darwinism basically states “survival of the fittest.” In business, there is a lot of competition, so for American industrial leaders to justify their practices, they claimed that only the strongest companies are able to thrive. They claim they can’t be weak or compromising so that is why they can treat their workers or run their corporation as they do.The theory of Social Darwinism is “survival of the fittest.”Most Progressives believed that the government should involve themselves with the people and pass legislation to improve the problems of society.After helping the Panamanians overthrow Colombia, the United States were given the Canal Zone. Theodore Roosevelt finished the construction of the Panama Canal, a link between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.President Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy was a doctrine that supported countries that had similar values, beliefs, and morals as the United States.The major goal of the Open Door Policy was to establish spheres of influence and equal trading rights within China. The United States gained the territory of the Philippines to Puerto Rico after the Spanish-American war of 1898.During the Spanish-American War, a propaganda technique known as Yellow Journalism was created by William Hearst. Written with outrageous headlines and inaccurate information, Yellow Journalism persuaded the American public to support the war against Spain.The Americans won the Spanish-American War and gained the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico.A traditional African saying Teddy Roosevelt had said was “Speak softly and carry a big stick.” This quotation represented his attitude toward US foreign policy in Latin America since it demonstrated that America’s navy was powerful and was not a force to be reckoned with.At the beginning of World War I, President Woodrow Wilson’s foreign policy was moral diplomacy and a belief in self-determination. He wanted to settle disputes by spreading democracy, spreading capitalism, and uniting the nations for world peace.The United States was brought into World War I because of the Zimmerman Telegram and Germany’s return to unrestricted submarine warfare. The Zimmerman Telegram was a note intercepted by the British from Germany to Mexico which encouraged the Mexicans to fight against the United States.The Sacco and Vanzetti case displayed the injustice and prejudice of the American court system by sentencing two men to death based mostly on their immigrant background and political beliefs, not evidence that they had actually committed the crime. The Red Scare, a period of the frenzied fear of communism, demonstrated how American citizens can turn upon one another based on personal grudges or different political beliefs. The Ku Klux Klan was a terrorist organization based on white supremacy. They killed and tortured many African Americans, non-whites, and other minorities.Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer led the Palmer Raids, organized raids which arrested, jailed, and deported suspected radicals, leftists, and anarchists.The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was established in 1909 by W.E.B. Du Bois, Moorfield Storey, and Mary White Ovington. This organization’s purpose to protect the rights of African Americans.Marcus Garvey created the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) and led the movement of Pan-Africanism, a movement which encouraged the unity of all people with African ancestry. He also advocated for African Americans to return to Africa since he did not believe white Americans would ever grant African Americans equal rights.In the early 20th century, women known as “suffragettes” launched a movement to earn the right to vote. Their goal was achieved with the ratification of the 19th Amendment in 1920.Prohibition was difficult to enforce since many Americans enjoyed drinking alcohol and had established speakeasies to secretly drink the beverage despite its ban.The 18th Amendment of the US Constitution was put in place to ban the import, production, and sale of alcoholic beverages.In the Scopes Trial of Tennessee, high school teacher John Scopes was accused of teaching evolution in his classroom. This modern science principle went against fundamentalism, a traditional Christian belief that states God had created everything.The 1920s are called the “Roaring Twenties” because it was a flourishing, enjoyable period of rich culture, art, music, and the growth of the consumer economy.During the 1920s, many women pursued further education, obtained jobs that were once only offered to men, and did activities that went against traditional societal values. Women known as “flappers” drank, had sex, smoked, and danced- all actions that were deemed inappropriate and lewd by traditional Americans. Women also gained jobs as typists, clerks, and office secretaries.Writers of the Harlem Renaissance include Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, and Zora Neale Hurston. When blacks from the South moved to the North, an event known as the Great Migration, racial discrimination and segregation increased. White Americans treated African Americans unfairly and the Ku Klux Klan rose in its membership.Occurring in New York during the 1920s, Langston Hughes led the artistic movement known as the Harlem Renaissance. This period was characterized by growth and popularity of black music, culture, literature, and art. It also created strong feelings of black pride and unity.The major causes of the Great Depression include the Stock Market Crash of 1929 (Black Tuesday), bank failures, and drought/The Dust Bowl in the rural Southern Plains of the United States.Herbert Hoover believed in the conservative values of “rugged individualism” and “trickle down economics” so he did not have the government attempt to fix the problems caused by the Great Depression. Instead, Hoover believed the American people would be able to recover on their owns.The Dust Bowl was caused by severe drought and farming techniques that failed to preserve the health of the soil in the Southern Plains of the United States. The dryness and wind blew loose topsoil and caused dust storms.Many Dust Bowl refugees migrated to California in order to acquire jobs and a better living. Californians did not like these refugees since it increased the competition for employment within the state.Established by Franklin D. Roosevelt, the New Deal’s purpose was to provide relief to American citizens and have the American economy recover through reform. To protect the stock market and prevent it from crashing like it did in 1929, FDR established the Securities and Exchange Commission with the New Deal.The purpose of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) was to protect the banking system from failing like it did during the Great Depression. Bank deposits up to a certain amount were assured by the FDIC.In 1933, Roosevelt issued a national bank holiday which closed every bank across the country for four days. In this period, illegitimate banks were permanently shut down and only credible banks opened again. FDR also established the FDIC. This allowed people to regain their confidence in the banking system.In 1922, FDR passed the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) which increased fair competition, wages, worker conditions, etc. It also led to a rise in labor union power by giving workers the right to form these labor unions without corporation interference.Social Security allowed disabled and old American citizens to consistently receive unemployment money.The United States was brought out of the Great Depression by World War II.