“Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance, and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so and a language is any specific example of such a system”.
A language is a scientific way of communicating ideas each other by the way of sounds, gesture, symptoms. Language is basically known as the mental power of verbal communication. In the world, any method of communicating ideas, mainly human speech, and the expression of ideas through the voice and sounds link through the larynx of the throat and mouth is a language. It is the way of mixing words to create communication with each other’s which means used by among the specific group of people to communicate. As a human being language is unique to us whereas other animals have their own communication methods, not the language, why we are saying so because it is the main difference that human got from another living being. Language remains probably a communicative medium of expressing ideas and concepts in addition to moods, feelings, and attitudes. Native or local language means that the person who came out from mother’s womb has got to know the world or obtain his or her first attention of the world through his native or local language. Another thing he is very loyal to his mother tongue before using another language. That is why language frequently called “Mother tongue” or “First Language”. Wherein language learned and used for constrained, individual purposes known as the foreign or alien language. Above said foreign or alien languages, while being available and not the important part of the social and cultural background in which one lives. It is sure that many languages don’t form a section of the part’s’ verbal repertoire and there is no pressure to learn each and every language from educational side or their socio-cultural side, it means that to carry out day to day works does not require a person to learn those foreign or alien languages either for his personal commitment with other people within the country or within the society. Language is not only a tool which helps or facilitate the living being of this world for expressing their ideas, feelings, emotions whereas language always shows the path for civilized. Language is an important combination to the world. Globalization is the new concept which interconnects the world in various ways. In the present day of a world where heading to the top of the globalization, it is very important to educate people especially children that the world beyond their own countries or societies where they live. The learning of English is the first and foremost criteria to meet the challenges of the globalization and reach the global standard. English is more important people who are trying to step-in to the world or open to the globalization
English act as the lingua franca of the 21st century. It is world known fact that English as a language plays the most important role all over the world. English has become a paramount necessity in the modern-day society and it provide international relations between nations. English is a global or worldwide language, speak in many countries both as a native and as a second or alien language. Most of the countries in the world, English teach as a subject in the schools. Now, in the modern world or society, English has become a common language and English became a steering wheel to achieve the goals. Today in the modern society, English is mainly considered as the language of Science and Technology. Apart from that English is very essential and key driving factor for International politics, Finance, Tourism, Commerce, and Military. “The development pace of English language as a global language had accelerated rapidly between the nineteenth and mid-twentieth centuries throughout the world, particularly after the 1950s, when a greater mobility of people was facilitated by the growth of air travel and international tourism” (Richards 2001). With the beginning of traveling people into the other countries, English had to play the most important role. Because some other countries speak another language and English as a second language whereas English is the only language to communicate with each other. “A language achieves a genuinely global status when it develops a special role that is recognized in every country” (Crystal, 2003:3). “Today, it cannot be denied that English has become a global lingua franca with non-native speakers of the language outnumbering its native speakers. Since roughly only one out of every four users of English in the world is a native speaker of the language” (Crystal 2003), most of the interactions take place among non-native speakers of English. “For those, English is a contact language between people who share neither a common native tongue nor a common culture, and for whom English is the chosen foreign language of communication” (Firth 1996: 240). Above statements of researchers shows how important and what kind of important role play English in the modern world. English has automatically become and maintain status as the global language in the world.
English is now accepted as an official or dominant language all over the world. It has gone to the different forms in the different areas of the world. In another hand, English has become the second language especially in the African countries and in the Asian countries. The history of the use of English in Sri Lanka today and history of teaching and learning English are all closely linked with the country’s modern history starting from the period of the British colonial rule (1796-1948). “The English language was one of the lasting legacies of the British administration in Sri Lanka. It has become one of the official languages, widely used as a ‘link’ among various communities that call the island their home. Inevitably, English has also become ‘Ceylonese’ or ‘Lankanised’ much to the horror of purists” (Daily News, 28/11/2007). “However, it is observed that even though the Sri Lankan students have been learning English as a second language for many years, some of their competency levels in English are not in a satisfactory level” (Siriwardhana KMR, 2012). It seems to be Sri Lankan students lack the English speaking. Not only the Sri Lankan students many of the Sri Lankans lacking behind speaking English. Many researchers have to found that people who have to use English as a second language should master English. “In most of the global companies where English is the primary language, advanced level non-native English speakers’ contribute productively at all levels. Still, many of these valued employees struggle with lack of confidence because they cannot communicate in English” (David K, 2009). Above statements prove that the non-native English speakers have to pay a lot of attention to the English language as it becomes paramount important in the today world. “The first aim is to make our population 100 percent English speaking. No language, however important it is, can replace the mother-tongue. It is established beyond any reasonable doubt that mother-tongue is more than a language; it is the foundation of personality. Therefore re-nationalization is out of the question” (Mettananda LH, 1952). According to the Metttananda, it is very difficult to replace the alien language for non-native English speakers as they speak another language from the day they born. Therefore English should master from the childhood. Then there will be a no a problem if they speak another language.
Professionalism is the most important thing of any military forces. Basic education is the basic need of education standard the person acquires from civil society. Then professional naval and military education helps to develop the professional naval personnel. Develop professional skills in naval personnel is mainly depend on the personal skills as well as the professional knowledge. Oxford dictionary defines skill is “The ability to do something well”. A skill is “an ability and capacity acquired through deliberate, systematic, and sustained the effort to smoothly and adaptively carryout complex activities or job functions involving idea, things, and/or people: (business dictionary).
Skills can be divided into two main categories such as technical skills and non-technical skills. Technical skills are the knowledge and abilities needed to accomplish mathematical, engineering, and scientific or computer related duties, as well as other specific tasks related to technology. Non-technical skills are social, cognitive and personal skills that can enhance the way you or your staff carry out technical skills, tasks, procedures. Clear communication, business savvy, accounting, initiative, curiosity, and teamwork are few examples of the non-technical skills. Under non-technical skills, clear communication enhances the personal skills.
“Good communication is as stimulating as black coffee, and just as hard to sleep after.”
Anne Morrow Lindbergh
Communication is the main reason for the success of the many organization. No organization exists without good communication. All the interaction between others based on good communication. In organization communication is the major factor for buying, having dealt with outside, and promotion etc. Good communication required not only for the organizations for your personal life like gathering, communicate with friends. As a human being, good communication required more than the words. Interpersonal communication basically involves the verbal and non-verbal communication. Basically, non-verbal communication is written communication and hand gesture as well as body posture. Being a human we have to communicate with each others. Why we communicate with others? We communicate with others to express wants and needs to develop a social relationship. Speaking is the most important skills to be developed to enhance the effective communication. What is speaking? “Speaking is the process of making and sharing meaning by using verbal and non-verbal symbols in a different context” (Chaney, 1998). For the most of them speaking is the difficult part when they communicate with each other. Many people find difficulties when expressing themselves. Because once they express their ideas they will stick due to non-availability of words.
Good communication skill is the ability to share information with others effectively, efficiently with verbally or non-verbally. To success your job career you should have good communication. For that clear, short but brief communication, you should have. Not only that listening, reading, writing should be essential for good communication. For clear communication, you have to listen very carefully. If you are not clear ask again. Clarify your doubts. Whatever you do in the workplace, your success because of the good communication. So you need to have good communication skills to accomplish your tasks. Why is communication important to accomplish tasks? Because you have to find out information, discuss problems, give instruction or get instruction. So to do all these things you should have good communication skills. To have good communication you should have a good confidence in yourself. That is also known as the self-confidence.
“Confidence is a habit that can be developed by acting as if you already had the confidence you desire to have”.
Why confidence is more important for good communication. What is the reason behind interconnection of confidence and communication?
“People with effective communication skills are more confident because they know they can tell other people exactly what they need” (Ahamad, 2016). “As a language, confidence is fundamental to communication, and an important catalyst to the whole process and the enjoyment at every step. Confidence is the most tangible expression of who we are” (Justin).
According to the above statements, confidence is the most valuable factor for communication. Without confidence, no one can express their feelings to others correctly. What is confidence? Confidence is “Knowing what you are good at, the value you provide and acting in a way that conveys that to others” (Gerald L). Confidence is matter every time. If you want to raise your confidence level you should have a target and you should have an aim. So, to go to aim you should have self-confidence. You should feel about your capabilities and what are the things you are good at. Always you should have good self-assessment. Self-confidence comes from your ability. That is why you should know about your ability. How do we measure confidence in communication? There are many tests did to identify the confidence in communication such as Burden of Stroke Scale (BOSS), ASHA Quality of Life (ASHA-QCL) and Communicative Effective Index (CETI). Only the ASHA-QCL was the only one touch communication in confidence and ASHA –QCL also not having standard among the measures. Because it is directly asking for confidence on only one question. So, based on confidence I am going to interconnect confidence to the naval personnel when communicating in English and how they show their confidence outside of the organization as well as in the Navy.
As English has become the global language in the world, it has become the essential tool for the military. English language also an important factor for the success of any military organization as well as the military operations all over the world. “English language has also become a major factor affecting the success of military operations all over the globe” (Mustafa ER, 2012). Combined operations conducted by forces of two or more nations English language plays a vital role. According to the Sri Lanka official website, it has been mentioned that Sri Lanka Navy is a military organization carrying out security around the Sri Lanka Sea by using ships and crafts. Sri Lanka Navy consists of both officers and sailors. For the easy administration, Sri Lanka Navy is divided into different branches which they have assigned to different roles. Officers and sailors are being enlisted in the Navy in different criteria’s with different educational backgrounds which suit for their profession.
It is world known fact that Sri Lankan military forces had to face war with LTTE. Sri Lanka Navy has changed educational qualification for the enlistment of sailors before 2009 due to the war situation. Sri Lanka Navy did not concern about educational background and it more focuses on to the war and heads for the war. So, Sri Lanka Navy reduce the educational qualification for joint the Navy (Lankadeepa, 2002). But now the Navy has changed. Navy modernizing and becoming a professional Navy. So, it has changed and increased the educational background for joining the Navy and nowadays enlisting more educational people (Wijegunarathna, 2017). There is another scheme for enlisting people into the Navy as special duties. They are not the uniform staff. But, as a civil staff, they attached to the various branch duties. Before 2009 their educational qualification for joining the navy was different (Sandagiri, 2004). But after the war, it has changed and educational qualification for joining the navy has increased (Wijegunarathna, 2017). Even though Sri Lanka Navy enlist people with the good educational background still they are failing to discharge their duties confidently in the English language. Former Commander of the Navy Admiral RC Wijegunarathna has identified that the value of the professional knowledge and he has identified that even though Naval personal has got local and foreign courses whereas they get an opportunity to enhance their professional knowledge. But still, they are failing to get maximum output from that courses due to lack of English knowledge. In the Navy, most of the documents are in English language and when using these documents there will be a problem arise due to this English language problem. So, it will be a problem when Navy converting to the future technical Navy. So, Navy encouraged Naval personnel to sit for the GCE (O/L) English as a subject and Navy has introduced the new criteria were giving marks for selection of Naval personnel for the local and foreign courses (Wijegunarathna, 2016). Above letter shows that how lack of English knowledge reduces naval personals working capacity in the working environment as well as their educational aspects.
Not only the GCE (O/L), Navy has introduced the APTIS test for foreign courses. Sri Lanka Navy has been informed from many countries that before attached to the foreign courses evaluate their English standard as per the requirement. Hence it is mandatory to sit for the APTIS test and it considers as the scale of naval Officer’s English knowledge (Wijegunarathna, 2016). Not only for the naval officers, there is a criterion for the naval sailors also for selecting foreign courses. As per the former Commander of the Navy Admiral DWAS Dissanayake selection board should consider about sailor’s English writing, reading, listening, and speaking ability as per the requirement of course (Dissanayake, 2012). Admiral JSK Colombage has mentioned that during his tenure he wish to have highly professional Navy (Wijayapala, 2012). To have highly professional Navy English is the mandatory factor. Australian Navy official website stated that Sri Lanka Navy is having multilateral cooperation with other countries, (Ranasinghe, Mitchell, 2015). As Navy is having multilateral cooperation with other countries, Navy is sending naval personnel for the peacekeeping duties to the other countries. When selecting naval personal for the peace keeping duties as per the former Commander of the Navy Admiral RC Wijegunarathna selection board should consider their English knowledge (Wijegunaratna, 2016). Major General Darshana Hettiarachchi stated “‘One language sets us in a corridor for life, two languages open every door along the way” and he has mentioned that the importance of English language during the certificate awarding ceremony of Basic English language course for NCOs (Civil-military coordination, 2017). Above mentioned statement shows that not only Navy concern about enhancing English knowledge about their men, sister services also concern about English knowledge of their people. In June 2004 the British High Commission was funded to enhance the Military Communication Skills Project requested by the military. The purpose of the project was to improve the quality of language and communication skills for military forces in Sri Lanka (Tribble C). Kotelawala Defence University is a University of Sri Lanka which trained officer cadets of tri-forces as well as civil students. It has identified the value of English language and uses English as a medium of instruction (Wijethunge MTN, 2015). Journal writing for the Officer under Trainees is the must. Because it will enhance their linguistic, writing skills, listening (Samarasinghe, 2009). As per above statements, it shows Navy, as well as KDU, has put a lot of efforts to enhance English knowledge of the Officer under Trainees.
Not only the Sri Lankan armed forces concerned about the English language, US Army conduct the pilot training programmed for the newly joined recruits who speak English as a second language (US Army, 1983). Not only the US Army, US Navy also conducting English training programme for newly recruited people who speak English as a second language (Abalos, 1990). According to the Turkish Air Force Academy, the English language is the essential tool for success in the field of trade and English is the major factor affecting for the success military operations all over the globe (international journal of social sciences and humanity studies vol 4, no 1, 2012 ISSN: 1309-8063 (online). After joined NATO in 2009 Albanian armed forces realized the importance of the English and they started the training programme for Albanian armed forces. At present Albanian armed troops operate in accordance with Alliance needs (Manjola L, 2013). It seems like foreign armed forces also very much concern about English language knowledge, especially American armed forces very much focus on English language knowledge about people who speak English as a second language. They have arranged English language training programme for them to enhance their English knowledge.