Kasturi sum of sine and cosine with different amplitude

Kasturi Sarjerao Patil

Dept. of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering

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Goa College of Engineering

Ponda-Goa, India

E mail: [email protected]

Purti Sawardekar.

Assistant Professor Dept. of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering

Goa College of Engineering

Ponda -Goa, India

 

 

Abstract— Watermarking is used widely to secure and authenticate the digital data. Different watermarking techniques are used to protect the data from unauthorized attackers. Some are discussed about the audio watermarking and some about video watermarking, But meanwhile, these method only protect the data for some geometric attacks only. To reduce piracy and these attacks we apply watermark to data. Most recently hybrid techniques are more robust to attacks. These hybrid techniques are DCT-DWT, DWT-SVD. In most recent techniques DWT- SVD is more robust technique so far.

Keywords—watermarking; hybrid; robustness

                                                                                                                                                                I.      Introduction

This paper discuss about the different techniques used for the watermarking. Watermarking plays important part in digital data security. Watermarking gives authenticity and privacy to appropriate owner. As digital data can be easily downloaded and uploaded again with some changes with different owner. To provide security for the ownership watermarking is widely used.  

                                                                                                                                                        II.    literature survey

The different audio and video hybrid watermarking techniques are studied for checking the robustness. These techniques are very impressive against the several geometric and external attacks. Watermarking is mostly calculate by the robustness, more the robust technique provide strong copyright protection. Here, discussing about both video and audio watermark which separately watermark to each signal and then combine to get most robust signal. This technique is more robust than any other techniques. Let’s discuss about the watermarking for video and audio techniques.

A.    Watermarking techniques

 

·         Least Significant Bit

 

The very first method of watermark embedding would be to embed the watermark into the least-significant-bits to cover object.  It gives the high channel capacity. For each pixel matrix lowest significant bit is replaced with another watermark bit. It gives watermark to data  but it is low robust.

·         Discrete Cosine Transform

  

 

The DCT sequence of data converted into spatial domain. It is converted to sum of sine and cosine with different amplitude and different frequency bands. It is much easier to embed watermarking information into the middle frequency bands of an image. Middle frequency bands are minimized. It avoids the visual parts of the image without exposing them. It is robust for blurring, contrast, adjusting and brightness.

 

·         Discrete Wavelet Transform

 

 

Discrete wavelet use different wavelet filters such as haar filter, Daubenches bi-orthogonal filters. These filter decomposes images in several frequency such as lower resolution image (LL), horizontal (HL), vertical (LH) and diagonal (HH). It is efficient and uses simple filter convolution. LL is chosen as it has larger and smaller for other (LH, HL HH). As large magnitude it is more significant.

 

·         Singular Value Decomposition

 

 

Each singular value specifies the luminance of an image and corresponding pair of singular vectors specifies the geometry of that image. In SVD-based watermarking, different types of approaches are possible. A common approach is to apply SVD to the image, and modify all the singular values to the watermark data. An important property of SVD based watermarking is that for most types of attacks the modified singular values change very little. It is most stable and has no effect on the image after watermarking. It is one way and non- symmetrical in nature which is not found in DCT and DWT. It is best robust when hybrid with other techniques.

 

 

B.    Types of attacks on Watermarking

·         Removal attack

 

Removal attacks aim at the complete removal of the watermark information without cracking the security.

This category includes de-noising, quantization re-modulation, and collusion attacks. Not all of these methods does complete watermark removal, but they may possibly damage the watermark.

 

·         Geometric attack

 

Geometric attacks do not actually remove the embedded watermark itself, also distort the watermark information. Pixels are locally shifted, scaled, and rotated without significant visual distortion.

 

·         Cryptography attack

 

Cryptographic attacks aim at cracking the security in watermarking schemes and using key or other method to remove the embedded watermark information or to embed different watermarks. These attacks are most complex one.

 

·         Protocol attack

 

These attacks also term as a inversion attacks. The idea behind inversion is that the attacker changes or deleted the watermark from the original data and claims to be the owner of the watermarked data with some changes in original data.

 

C.    Techniques and robustness

 

These are some techniques to avoid such attacks and the robustness for that technique after watermarking.

 

 

 

                          TABLE I

Sr. No.

Techniques

Robustness

Security

1

LSB 
 LEAST SIGNIFICANT BIT

Least Robust Against Geometry

Low

2

DCT
DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM

High Robust Against Filters

Medium

3

DWT
DISCRETE WAVELET  TRANSFORM

High Robust Against Geometric Disturbance

Medium

4

SVD
SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION

High Robust Against Geometric Disturbance

High

 

 

 

D.    Comparison Of different Methodologies in Watermarking

 

TABLE II

Name of paper

Method

Author

Parameter for robustness

Hardware Implementation of a Digital Watermarking System for Video Authentication

DCT

Sonjoy Deb Roy, Xin Li, Yonatan Shoshan, Alexander
Fish(2013)

 
low power consumption, low
cost implementation, high
Speed, and reliability

A Digital Video Watermarking
Technique Based on Identical
Frame Extraction in 3-Level DWT
 

3-Level
(DWT)
 

Tamanna Tabassum,
S.M.Mohidul  Islam (2012)
 

Strong robustness against  cropping Gaussian noise, Salt & pepper noise adding, frame dropping and adding
 

Implementation and performance analysis of DCT-DWT-SVD based Watermarking algorithms for color images

DCT-DWT-SVD

Nidhi Divecha,
Dr. N. N. Jani
 

Check effectiveness of both
techniques for Imperceptibility
and robustness PSNR and NCC
 

A Robust Scheme for Digital Video Watermarking based on Scrambling of Watermark
 

 (2D)
 
DWT
 

Mahesh R. Sanghavi, Dr Archana M.RajurkarProf.Dr. Rajeev Kotecha 

watermarking scheme to make scheme robust against various attacks video attacks
Frame dropping.
 

Comparison of different watermarking techniques

                                                TABLE III

Name of paper

Method

Author

Parameter for robustness

A Novel Audio Watermarking Algorithm for Copyright Protection Based on DCT Domain.
 

 
 
DCT

Yang, Yan

More Robust
 

Audio Watermarking by Hybridization of DWT DCT
 

DCT-DWT

Ghulam Ali Muhammad Tahir azir Ahmad Zunaira Saleem  Sohail
 

good results against
 different external attacks

Audio watermarking using combination of multilevel wavelet decomposition, DCT and SVD.

DCT- SVD

Singhal, Achintya, Anurag Narayan Chaubey,
Prakash.

robustness and inaudibility
Results are not up to mark

 
Improved Audio Watermarking Using DWT-SVD.
 

DWT-SVD
 

N.V. Lalitha,
Suresh, Dr. Sailiaja.

DWT-SVD algorithm proves to
 be more robust than DCT-SVD

                                

                                         CONCLUSION

Audio and video watermarking techniques are discussed. These different techniques have different robustness. For video and audio the best possible technique is chosen and among them best hybrid technique set for audio and video watermarking. This can make a data more secure and robust to attacks to more extent. Video watermark is mostly targeted data over the digital network.

 

                  FUTURE SCOPE

The overall conclusion shows that hybrid techniques of audio and video watermarking can be combining to make more robust watermark. This watermark could give more security and authenticity to the video and audio data. For furthermore robustness each frame could be differently watermarked.

 

                            REFERENCES

1     Sonjoy Deb Roy, Xin Li, Yonatan Shoshan, Alexander Fish and Orly Yadid-Pecht “Hardware Implementation of a Digital Watermarking System for Video Authentication”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS FOR VIDEO TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 23, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2013,

2     Nidhi Divecha  and Dr. N. N. Jani “Implementation and performance analysis of DCT-DWT-SVD based watermarking algorithms for color images”, 2013International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Signal Processing (ISSP), 2013 IEEE

3      Tamanna Tabassum, S.M. Mohidul Islam “A Digital Video Watermarking Technique Based on Identical Frame Extraction in 3-Level DWT” in 2012 IEEE, PP-101-106(2012)

4      Mahesh R. Sanghavi, Dr. Mrs. Archana M. Rajurkar, Prof. Dr. Rajeev Mathur ,Kainjan S. Kotecha “A Robust Scheme for Digital Video Watermarking based on Scrambling of Watermark”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 35– No.2, December 2011

5     A Novel Audio Watermarking Algorithm for Copyright Protection Based on DCT Domain. Electronic Commerce and Security, 2009. ISECS’09. Second International Symposium on. Vol. 1. IEEE, 2009.

6     Audio Watermarking by Hybridization of DWT DCT IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.17 No.8, August 2017 Ghulam Ali Muhammad Tahir Mumtaz  Inam Ul Haq  Zia Ul Rehman Nazir Ahmad Zunaira Saleem  Sohail

7     Audio watermarking using combination of multilevel wavelet decomposition, DCT and SVD. Emerging Trends in Networks and Computer Communications (ETNCC), 2011 International Conference on. IEEE, 2011. Singhal, Achintya, Anurag Narayan Chaubey, and Chandra Prakash.

8     Improved Audio Watermarking Using DWT-SVD. International Journal of Scientific& Engineering Research N.V. Lalitha, Suresh, Dr. Sailiaja (2011).