Jute the fibrils. Generally, fibre’s mechanical properties increase with

Jute is one of the most
important lignocellulosic fibrous crop belonging to the Tiliaceae family,
mostly cultivated in the tropics and subtropics. The jute plant is an annual
herbs, and mature plants, grows 2.5-4 m in height and a basal diameter of about
25 mm (Ghosh et al.2013; Kumar et
al. 2014; Del Rio 2009 ). The fibers are developed in the bark region of the stem. The fibres are
held together by pectinous gummy material which keeps the fibre bundles fasten
with non-fibrous tissues of jute bark. Jute fibers are 1 to 3.5 m long can be
extracted from the bark of the stem after retting process. Jute fibre is
multicellular structure composed of inconsistent number of cells cemented
tightly by intercellular substances.  The
individual jute cells are composite structure, long cellulosic fibrils embedded
in a matrix of hemicelluloses and lignin to form ultimate jute cell. The physical
properties of lignocellulosic fibre are dependent on the three basic
constituent part cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin (Saha et al. 2010; Gowda et
al.1999; Das 2015a; Das 2017a ).  Cellulose is the most important
component of jute fibre, long cellulosic fibrils embedded in a matrix of
hemicelluloses and lignin and shape ultimate jute cell. The ultimate Jute cell
is cemented jointly by lignin to form a long filament (Joshi 2004; Mukheijee 1993; Das 2016). The cellulose fibrils are
the main tensile strength provider of jute fibers. The major portion of the
cellulose is micro-crystalline structure with high order of crystalline
regions. The mechanical properties of cellulosic fibres are largely governed by
cellulose content and the orientation of the fibrils. Generally, fibre’s
mechanical properties increase with higher cellulose content and lower
microfibril angle of cellulose chains. Other components of the fibre are
hemi-cellulose, lignin and pectin also increase fiber stiffness, they transfer
load to cellulose fibrils. Tensile properties of fibers are an important
parameter for their selection of end uses (Bledzki
and Gassan 1999; Mwaikambo 2009). Jute fibre
acquire some advantageous physical properties such as high tensile strength,
low tensile elongation at break, low cost and eco-friendly fibres which are
renewable makes it attractive for use as reinforcing material (Jawaid 2013; Das 2017b). Being natural hydrophilic cellulosic fibre, jute has some drawbacks such
as high moisture absorption, poor dimensional stability, the relatively poor
thermal stability,  poor compatibility
towards a hydrophobic polymer matrix, resulting in weak interfaces and poor
mechanical properties of the composites (Doan and Brodowsky,
2012; Akil 2009; Sever et al. 2012; Das and Bhowmick 2015b ).