the supreme art of the teacher to awaken joy in creative expressions and
knowledge.” “Teaching should be such
that what is offered is perceived as a valuable gift and not as a hard duty.”
Einstein, German born Physicist and Nobel Prize winner (1879-1955)
Teaching and learning activities are twin activities
involved in the total education process. Teaching and learning are closely
related and they are reciprocal to each other. Teaching cannot be thought
without an idea of learning and learning is not possible without teaching. The
main focus of teaching is to facilitate learning, where the teaching learning
process occurs smoothly and continuously. If the teaching and learning process
is effective, the learner is able to make best use of the things in the world
around him. Teaching learning process is a means whereby society trains its
yound ones in a selected environment as quickly as possible to adjust
themselves to the world in which they live.
Teaching learning process in totality is
influenced by the situations. Teaching learning is fruitful and permanent if
the total situation is related to the life situations, teacher can play an
important role in facilitating, learning when they take into account the needs
of the learner. In nursing , learning
occurs within a framework of influential factors that effect the
character, quality and effectiveness of an educational program of an
institution. These influential factors include the philosophy of the
institution, the type of administration, the learner, faculty, types of
patients, interests and problems of the community and collective beliefs of
those involved in the education program.
and function of teaching:
The structure of teaching consists of three
variables that are (i) the teacher which is thought to be an independent
variable, (ii) the student which is an dependent variable and (iii) the content
and strategies for presentation which is an intervening variable.
The teacher: the
teacher who is considered as an independent variable plays an important role in
the process of teaching. It is the teacher who plans, organizes, leads and
controls the teaching to bring about the changes in the behaviour of the
students and has the freedom to perform the activities for providing the
learning experiences to the students.
The student: the
student is considered as an dependent variable in the process of teaching
as he/she has to act according to the planning and organization of the teacher.
And the students learning is always influenced by the teaching activities.
Content of teaching: it
is considered as an intervening variable an the strategies, tactics of teaching
and the techniques of motivation which are being used by the teacher has an
intervening effect on the student and helps in the learning process of the
The above mentioned variables
in the structure of teaching together
have certain functions to perform in the process of teaching and learning. The
three functions performed by the independent and dependent variables are as
function: The teacher is more active in
this function and as a teacher the initial task is to bring about the desirable
changes in the behaviour of the students by proper diagnosis of the existing
situation. For this the teacher has to diagnose his/her own capabilities and
potentials which is needed to mould the behaviour of the students. Secondly the
teacher has to diagnose the entering behaviour of the students in terms of their
cognitive, conative and affective abilities. Thirdly the teacher has to
formuate certain specific educational objectives, and the type and quality of
behavioural change that is to be introduced in the students, and lastly the
teacher has to analyze the content, the
instructional material and the environmental facilities available for carrying
out the task.
The diagnostic function of the student
includes diagnosing his / her strength and weakness, assessing himself or
herself in terms of the tools of learning such as power of expression, ability
to think and analyze, psychomotor skills and emotional behaviour etc. and
lastly making efforts to understand the behaviour of the teacher, the type of
teaching method, the instructional material and the nature of content.
function : The prescriptive function is based on the diagnosis of achieving the
stipulated objectives. In this the teacher takes the decision about the
teaching strategies and tactics to be used. Hence the teacher is more active in
the prescriptive function.
function: This is done inorder to test the diagnostic and prescriptive
functions of teaching and in this function the student is more active. This
function is very important from the point of view of the student and teacher. The
evaluation may be done with the use of test, inventories, observations,
interviewing, rating scales etc. A favourable result indicates that the
prescriptive function was correct but an unfavourable result may indicate that
necessary changes may be needed in the prescriptive function.
The national training laboratories researched
and developed the learning pyramid which specifies the retention rates of
various approacher of teaching.
90% of what we say & do
30% of what we see
70% of what we say
20% of what we hear
10% of what we read
I see & I forget I hear & I remember I do I understand – confucius
50% of what we see & hear
Learning pyramid by Edgar Dale
This figure was developed by getting an average
reading and at times may vary from student to student based on the students
attention, thinking and recall and also on how well the lesson has been
designed and how actively the learners are engaged in the learning process.
Hence to increase the retention rate of the students what is expected from the
teacher is to gain the students attention, generate interest in the topic an
motivate the learner and making the learner to think on the topic and share
Maxims of teaching
Maxims of teaching is nothing but the rules
that govern the classroom teaching. A teacher employes certain ways to organize
her teaching inorder to meet the cognition level of her students. The maxims
helps to organize the teaching learning activity, it makes the terms and
concepts more understandable, it helps the teacher to deliver her lecture
keeping in mind the mental level of the students, and the most important thing
is that it helps in designing and presenting the content in effective way.