University of Management
and Technology, Lahore
and meaning of islamophobia
Muslims way of life
that exacerbated islamophobia
is a new word coined in 1997. Due to advancement in technology and bridging the
gape between east and west particularly between the Muslims and non Muslims
states of Europe, the termed Islamphobia emerged. The migration of Muslims from
their under developed countries to the developed countries in search of better
future also resulted in the creatiom of the word Islamophobia .Before 1990 no
one was aware of Islamophobia .It was recently after the arrival of Donald
trump that this term has become widespread
everywhere ,particularly in USA and European countries. Muslims were
being targeted due to their religion and colour. Many people miss assumed all
Asian as muslim and start abusing them, There are hundreds of example of
islamophobia taken from different news and media websites which will be
discussed later which will be discussed later in this article. Muslims are
beign single out from main stream activities like politics due to rising
Islamophobia. Call for ban on Muslims identity outfits were widely taken in
different countries .Some forbade Hijab and bear also. Call for banning burka
is also widespread. In Australia even an MPA did a stunt show by donning a
Burka for banning Burka .Her aim was to gain wide media attraction and Public
sympathy that by wearing Burka one’s identity remains hidden.Recently
islamophobia has been on the rise due to refugee crisis. According to middle
east institute an organization providing expert analyisis on middle,,, Recent
surveys conducted in Europe indicate a rise in Islamophobia since 2015, namely
since the beginning of the refugee crisis. Islamophobic incidents have been
taking place across the whole continent, even in places where Muslim communities
are almost absent, for example, in some Central European states,, . According
to the middle east institute website is
lamophobia has been increase by some european countries who propogate anti muslims feelings in the
public. According to this website if such political force win election in
europe it will change the european policy towards middle east.
Definition and meaning of islamophobia:
Now we come to the defination and origin of
the term islamphobia itself. Accoring to wikipedia “slamophobia is an intense
fear or hatred of, or prejudice against, the Islamic religion or Muslims,
especially when seen as a geopolitical force or the source of terrorism“.
Oxford dictionary define islamphobia as “Dislike of or prejudice against Islam
or Muslims, especially as a political force“.
merriam webster dictionary defined islamphobia as “irrational fear of,
aversion to, or discrimination against Islam or people who practice Islam“.
The origin of the term itself is still debated. According to wikipedia “The
term was first used in the early 20th century“. The wikipedia.org further
stated that the term was surfacinmg during 1970 and 1980 but it was first time
use as “by the Runnymede Trust’s Commission on British Muslims and
Islamophobia (CBMI) entitled Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All (1997)“. The
islamphobia has also been associated as other hatred term such as
anti-Muslimism, intolerance against Muslims, anti-Muslim prejudice, anti-Muslim
bigotry, hatred of Muslims, anti-Islamism, Muslimophobia, demonisation of
Islam.When BBC reporter adil shazeb asked londor mayor about increase of
Islamophobia in UK after his election as mayor of london. The mayor of london
said that not only islamophobia but anti semintism has been increased in the
The word islamphobia has been derived from
islam and phobia . Phobia is a suffix in english which mean “fear of“ . The Berkeley
University Islamophobia Research & Documentation Project suggested the
working definition: “Islamophobia is a contrived fearAt a 2009 symposium
on “Islamophobia and Religious Discrimination.
most educated people are unaware about the actual population of muslims.They
think that Muslims are enormous in numbers and overcome their countries and
enforce sharia law. They saw every muslims with prejudiced eye. In west the
common meaning of islam phobia has been taken as fear of muslims but fear is against a strongest enemy. Man
fear God due to retribution .Man fear nature due to its ruthless and cruelty
impacted upon humanity.Man fear water because he might drown and fire becuase
it burns.Muslims are not that much strong in the wolrd particularly in the
europe than why they fear Muslims.Perhaps we link Islamophobia to a mental
illness and ignorance.
In DAWN newspaper ,irfan hussain wrote in 2014
about the cause of islamphobia.In his article “View from abroad: Causes of
Islamophobia“ he blamed the ignorance of west as a cause if islamphobia. He
wrote “What percentage of the total population is Muslim? This was a question
in a recent UK poll. The average number calculated from the replies given by
respondents was 21 per cent. The actual figure is 5pc. This ignorance was even
worse in the United States where people think Muslims make up 15pc of its total
population when it’s only one per cent.The situation in France is even worse:
people think 31pc of its population are Muslims when the figure is actually
8pc“. The miscalculation and overthinking about muslims and thei rpopulation
is the main cuase of islamophobia. What made people think overestimate numbers
of muslims in west is just fear and anxiety that muslims will dominate them.
were often portrayed as terrorist in the west and united states of america
because many heinous act of crime are beign committed by Muslims. It is true
that many muslims are involved in many extremism activities across the globe.
This does not means that all muslims have radical thinking.Muslims countries
are itself the most victums of terrorism. For example see our own country
Pakistan ,more terrorist activities occur in Pakistan than the united states.
Most mulims countries across the world are itsefl the victum of
islamophobia.Afghanistan ,iran ,iraq ,UNITED ARAB EMIRATES ,saudi arabia , bangladesh
and many more muslims countries are victums of terrorism.So the claim of wets
that muslims are ectremist have no point. If we look at the number of terrorist
activities held globally we come to know muslims countries have more causalties
than non muslim countries.
attacks by groups such as AL qaeda and ISIS has rightly increased fear among
the west and many other countries .rise of ISIS particularly after 9/11 has
dramatically incrased the islamophobia in the united states and other countries
in europe after any brutal attack , like the attacks in San Bernardino and Orlando,
there increase anti-Muslim sentiment and
hate crimes. But, the crimes committed by Muslim extremists are not the main cause of
islamophobia.. A study by New America Foundation has concluded that in the united states of America since tragic incident of 9/11 far-right extremists,
many of them identify strongly as
Christians, have killed numbers as compared to those killed by Muslim extremists.Prior to
the Orlando shootings, in which omer mateen a security guard killed forty nine
(49) people in night clud shooting during june 2016, rightist extremists killed somehow more than extremist Muslims.American never
blame Christianity for the individual act by Christians people.Neither they to banned them from entering the country or patrol their
neighborhood. Some times followers of
Other religions like Buddhist , hindus and sikh also perpetrated violent
ectremism which draw media attention dring that time , but the followers of
these two religions are not seen with dubious eyes as compared to islam .Hence
we can assume that its is general hatred towards Islam which compelled American
to hate Muslims rather than other religions followers. The crimes perpetrated
by Muslims are generally expolioted to brought a bad image of muslims and Islam
in USA particularly and in the whole world generally.
Although the orlnado nightclub shootor later
pledge his allegiance to ISIS ,according to a report by CNN. Orlando mass
shootong was worst terror attack since deadliest attack of 9/11. Many Muslims
denounced the attack. Council on American-Islamic Relations also condemned it.
Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) National Communications Director
Ibrahim Hooper said,
“”This is a hate crime, plain and simple We condemn it in the strongest
possible terms.”. This shows that the mainstream muslims has nothing do with terrorism.
with its inflammantory reports and non serious language has cause much demage.
Media portraying the terrorists particularly as muslims wit big bold headlines
as well as with the background and their origins. The oklohoma state bombing no
body question about theor faith.April 19, 1995. Perpetrated by Timothy McVeigh
and Terry Nichols, the bombing killed 168 people, injured more than 680 others,
and destroyed one-third of the building. No media outlet dare to question them
as christian terrorists.
According to huffington post “Since the
majority of Americans say they don’t know a Muslim, their information comes
primarily from media, and the media is hilariously biased. According to a
recent study carried out by MediaTenor, 90% of news media about Muslims and
Islam was negative. Another study, conducted by 416Labs found that over the
past 25 years, the New York Times portrayed Islam and Muslims more negatively
than they did cancer and cocaine.So Islamophobia is manufactured and a tool of
manipulation, endangering not only Muslims, but the health of our democracy”.
Huffington post further claim that there is
Islamphobia industry and has an access to $205 million in total revenue between
Muslims way of life:
have theor own religious cultural identity. Tehy don’t mix with local in way
like their own bretherean .Muslims don’t drink alcohol and don’t eat pig.
Muslims search for halal food and muslims women wear dopatta .They stand out
clearly as compared to other people by
muslims also have beard which also make them easy to identify. Hence Muslims
are a visible community in the west.
Irfan hussain in his article in DAWN writes ,
“Firstly, Muslims in the West form a very visible community as a majority of
the women wear traditional clothing, with many opting for either the full niqab
or a headscarf; young men often grow beards. They thus stand out in a way other
communities don’t.The community also preserves its cultural and religious
practices by not going to pubs with colleagues and neighbours, and insisting on
halal meat. Then there are many horror stories in the media about forced
marriages and honour killings that take place in Muslim communities.” (Irfan
hussain DAWN November 03, 2014.
November 03, 2014 View from abroad: Causes of Islamophobia)
Fatwas against non muslims are also the cause of Islam phobia. After the
famous fatwa against Salman Rushdie and the worldwide riots over the Danish
newspaper cartoons, Muslims are also seen as violent and humourless people who
cannot abide criticism of their faith, even in fiction. Reports about
non-Muslims persecuted and even killed under the blasphemy laws reinforce this
perception of an intolerant community.
that exacerbated islamophobia:
The history of uslamophobia is long one but the
two events in America and france are the main casue. The 9/11 in united states
and the attack in paris in Novenmber 2017 is the starter of islamphobia in
Europe.In november 2015 series of coordinated bomb blast in Paris result in the
death of nearly one hundred and fifty people in france.In the after math of
that incident the islamophobia has been increaesed in europe.
trump era Islamophobia:
After trump elected as a president of united
states the islamophobia has been increased in united states.Aljazeera reported
that “Trump won because he was willing to deliver Islamophobia in the blatant
and brazen terms his Republican peers and predecessors would not fully commit
to.”Instead of “Islam is peace”, Trump declared that, “Islam
hates us”, giving disaffected bigoted voters exactly what they wanted,
banned entry from six islamic countries national into america although from 1975 to 2015 none
of the citizens from these countries are involved in any terrorism activities.
This is an example of state sponsor islamophobia ,writes one of the american
muslims in the indepedent newpaper UK .
Not only european countries but India also
propagate Islamophobia. The secular constitution of india is just to show off
to the world.India cann’t hide behind the secular constitution to hide its
hatred towards Islma and Muslims.Many incidents recently were discriminated in
jobs and many other places due to the biased attitude of Hindus.
According to Amnesty international , London-based non-governmental organization
focused on human rights “Hate crimes against Muslims and rising Islamophobia
must be condemned”.There are dozens of hatred of crimes against Muslims in
aljazeera reporting by Shereena Qazi on
18 Nov, 2017 “Muslim woman in India denied job for wearing hijab”.According to
the report available on website of aljazeera.com “An Indian social worker says
she was denied a job at an orphanage based in the Indian capital of New Delhi
because her recruiter felt that her hijab made her look “like a Muslim
In a similar incident reported by BBC world
service “Indian man denied job for ‘being Muslim’.According to the website of
BBC zaheer khan was denied job because the firm only hire non muslims.The
report says “Mumbai-based Zeeshan Khan applied for a job at the jewellery firm,
Hari Krishna Exports, but failed to get an interview with the company.”We
regret to inform you that we only hire non-Muslim candidates,” the firm
said in an email reply to him”. This is the dismal state of Islamophobia in our
Islamophobia has no border ,even our neighbour
India is suffering Islamophobia.It is on the spike inwestern countries after
the 9/11 and paris atttack.aftter donald trumpwas elected as a president of the
united states of america ,the hate crimes against the muslim has been rised.
President trump even tweet anti muslims tweets and his millions followers
retweeted that which spikes islamophobia.Huffinhton post called it as a state
sponser islamophobia.According to washington post trumps whole career is build on
islamophobia and living in trump’s america is difficult for Muslims.
Islamophobia can only be decreased by bridging
the gap between Muslims and non muslims of european countries through and
discource. Leading media outlets like CNN ,FOX ,Ssky news , CNBC and other news
channel should on air such programmes which discourage islamophobia. Media also
host a programme on the issue and bring
main stream muslim leaders on the front who oppose the extremism and terrorism.
Unfortunately media only bring forward excessively small oulaw factions called of muslims into the public eye which build
bad image of all muslims.Media should teach the people that the outlaws of
small faction less than 0.99% are not real muslims.They have nothing to do with
islam.They themsleves are negating the core teachings of Islam.In that way
islamophobia can be brought to end in european countries,USA and all over the