In many years ago, South African people were led by customary law; where citizens were divided according to their tribes and rule by traditional leaders and there were no abroad countries that will impact the decisions and policies of those particular tribes. Wiil et al (2011) discovered that in 1876 Alexander and other former Harvard students established new technology that makes easy communication to all people around the world. This assignment will focus on the role player that would play a role in the policy process. Legal sources such textbook, government Gazette, internet journals and constitution will be consulted in order to clarify and discuss the process and environment that need to be considered during the policy process.
THE ROLE PLAYER IN PUBLIC POLICY
South African is government by integrated government, which consist of National, Provincial and local government. Government has the responsibility to make policies and laws about the rights and responsibilities of citizens and the delivery of government services. According to Education Training Unite (2017) Government collects revenue (income) from taxes and uses this money to provide services and infrastructure that improves the lives of all the people in the country, particularly the poor. On other side the writer presumes that uncontrollable components such Political, economic, social, cultural, physical environment, technology and religious environment. These role players need to be considered during the policy process
Political Opposition Parties
South Africa is the country with nine provinces that lead by different political parties, therefore the national ruling party find it difficult to make policies to those provinces. Fox et al (2006:5) theorise that when human being start living together in communities they become less self-supporting, community tend to join other communities to form larger societies, people need goods and services that they cannot provide individually, as family or communities, therefore people they create institutions to deliver goods and services.
In addition, excise their power by voting expecting that their government will deliver a public services to their communities, and government official are being challenge by the principles of Batho Pele, which they emphasise transparency,redress and consult about the service that will be delivered to the people. According to section 118 of the Constitution, a provincial legislature may not exclude the public, including the media, from a sitting of a committee unless it is reasonable and justifiable to do so in an open and democratic society. The writer fined that; government can be delayed by the intervention of in citizens on reaching policy decision. There more people given a power to be the put of decision making there more delays and conflicts that occurs.
After the apartheid regime, South Africa has allowed the system of multiparty which it allows each and every one to open his or her political party. According to Brand of South Africa (2014) South Africa has nine provinces, eight of them are control by African National Congress and one is control by Democratic Alliance. Although ANC is regarded as the Nation Country, it has now power to establish the policy for Western Cape. Section 125 on executive authority of provinces, concurred that Premiers exercise the executive authority by implementing provincial legislation in the province. The Western Cape Government has power to establish a public policy that will be suitable for the province without consulting National Party (ANC).
Economic and World Competition
Developing countries such South Africa ,are still depending on the private sector on developing and urbanisation, even though Eskom and other monopolies are the not own by the state , government had to provide the funds to them to ensure that business machines and employees are productive . According to Economic Development Department (2015) the government uses a number of policies such taxation, public expenditure, subsidies, credit access and interest rate changes. Therefore Macro-economic policy aims to collaborate these systems to deliver Sustainable human develop outcomes.
In addition: John (2004:6) presumes that macroeconomic policy is the set of rules designed to influence or control macroeconomic variable. These variables are namely growth, unemployment and interest rates. When the is high appreciation on the interest rates can results to high demand of subsides, Government have to subsidise private exporters in order for them to pay tariffs . Policy makers can be affected by other foreign policy. Colin (2009) defines foreign Policy as the general objectives that guide the activities and relationships of one country in its interactions with other states. South African should ensure that its policy does not contradict with the international policy, namely United Nations and BRICKS.
The write has noted that our country is known as the rainbow nation where we find diversity to the work place including to the community. Religious environment can cause civil war. Thulani (2016) discovered that national committee of Rastafarians marched to Parliament, demanding the legalisation of dagga. On other side Rastafarians are not even allowed to work in the government institutions such South African Policy Service.
There are some religious organisations such as ACDP (South African Democratic Party), and these parties need to be considered by the policy makers. According to Michelle (2013) South Africa is country with mix of citizens that are practising different cultures. In this situation policy maker should ensure that only the people from different are equal, because other religious namely Muslim may start their opposing organisation and that can result to war in the country.
Furthermore, Religious organisation stands to morals and values in our communities, therefore they may allow government to make a policy that will affect their beliefs. Frank (2013) states that it is not uncommon these days for people to regard religion as an unwanted guest when public start discussing policies and their resolutions. The write as already indicated that there are many religious leaders that establishing political parties aiming to delegates and lead the country.
Industries such mining and farming are characterised by uneducated employees where they work long hours and receive less wages, after the apartheid and oppression era our government sees imported for the employees to have their representatives. Trade unions are the organisation that formed by employees from related department that work for the common interest of its members, they protect workers; they fight for fairness of payment and good working environment. Pepper et al (2014:1) claimed that many labour unions are no longer having the power to make themselves interlocutor. Many critics that unions and government received after the death of employees in Marikina, people and other people have no faith in trade unions.
Labour organisations are also formed to do follow-up and ensuring that labour laws are being implemented in the work place. Cutting Edge (2015) discovered that thee many farm worker who are being employed without signing the written agreement with their employees and they work long hour living with horrible houses. Trade Unions can create a bad image of the government due to the failure of punishing the oppressors. According Zipedol (2015) Employment Equity Act applies to all employers and worker and protects job seekers from unfair discrimination, and also provides a framework for implementing affirmative action.
In addition, Trade Unions have power to encourage the employees to strike if the employer to no meets the employee’s demand. Boycotts and strike can have negative effect on government development and economic policies. When the employees strike means that there is no productivity and the value of Rand can go down. According Giles (2014) labour organisation are responsible to negotiate with the employer and emphasis suitable salaries both on private and public employees, therefore if the employer do not agree on these matters, the government department and can face with challenges of delays on completing the projects.
Individual and Citizens
General citizens from township and rural areas are presented by their leader ,thy done this by voting hoping them to be their voice on parliament .According to Bod (2003:2) citizen participation is a process which provides private individual and opportunity to influence public decisions and has long been a component of the democratic decision making process. Owuar (2012:9) states that participation and transparency include interaction and relationship between governments and citizens, transparency requires some degree of local participation.
The symbiotic relationship between transparency and participation results into contradiction of policy guidelines. However the writer presumes that there are barriers to participation. Christian (2016) theorise that ordinary people have lack of interest on the political and government and policy maker find it difficult to address and alert them. Previously author ague that ordinary people can have influence on the decision, they believe that government officials are manipulating people acting as if they listen to the word of the marginal ones.
In addition, David at el (2017:29) states that government officials argues that citizen’s participation programs often undermine the in-place representative special interest group that is willing to consider policy from a broader community perspective. Furthermore David states that citizens on other side, complain that participation programs are implemented in a Performa manner and them that they do not have any influence on agency policy. The argument above can be realistic because there are some issue where public servants delivery service in service that are not sustainable to people, many people were demanding their land back but those issue are still not yet resolved.
Media is form of communication program that are responsible to report and update public about everything that is happening speciously the public sector. Business dictionary (2013) defines media as communication channels through which news other activities are disseminated. State meeting are expected to be known by citizens therefore broadcasting channels are playing huge role on publishing the daily activities of government. They way which media deliver their repot can impact the positive or negative, example if the media exaggerate the accuse government official citizens will start to be intervene and be influenced.
The relation between media and politics create unfree speeches and government official have to employee securities that will protect them from interest groups. David et al (2014:73) concurred that all governments develop some policies aimed at regulating and controlling the media because they understand their political and social importance. On other hand citizens may think that government is hiding some its corruption systems, because people are expected that their government should be transparent. Having a government official that is behind the scene can cause a broken relationship between government and people.
Furthermore, developing country like South Africa ensures that exporting policy will suit their trading partners, example if the value of Rand is down/ depreciated our government will have to introduce policy that will generate more money from tax payer in order to import services such Condoms and car engines from Indonesia and German. Many authors concurred that when country is about to make a policy, it must consider the international trade. Harry et al (2013:72).
South Africa is global dominating country on natural resources; during the policy process government can implement the policy that will lower the demand of importers. Frank at el (2007:12) concurred that the protection of imports and exports to save the industry and resources of the country however the local companies can retrench some of the employees. It should be clear to government that the lesser the productivities the lesser the income, therefore unemployment could occurred. The exchanging of goods and services is called International trade. According to Bradley (2017:38) International trade is the exchange of capital, goods and services across international borders, furthermore in other countries, such trade represent a significant share of the product that produces in the country.
In addition, international organisations such World Trade organisation may intervene in the trading agreement of South African and other country. Policy Coordination and Advisory Services (2008:56) states that the attainment of democracy, assimilating the country into the global setting become a preoccupation, therefore it was necessary to transform the foreign, defence and intelligence organisations and those engaged in the country’s foreign economic relations. The public violence and xenophobia attacks that happening within the country give foreign investor bad image of South Africa and government make policies that will keep foreign investors.
International business that are in South Africa are also contributing on creating job opportunities for the of the country, therefore Government may also formulate policy that will restrict them from employing foreigner. On other side citizens can decide to go for the public violence and attack those foreigners and accusing them for taking their job.
The discussion above noted the developing and implementing of policy is more than a decision, there are various steps that need to be follow other internal and internal role players that need to be taken in considerations before the implementing or emending the policy. One of the role players that has been identify as the most crucial is Citizens, the main reason that they are the one who put people in power and every policy that is made by the State have effect on their needs.