Introduction From the 1980s globalization turned into an exceptionally


From the 1980s globalization turned into an exceptionally talked
about subject, the same number of associations started to comprehend the
advantages of working in a borderless worldwide condition contrasted with a
confined single market. However essentially characterizing the term has
demonstrated troublesome as ‘globalization traverses a substantial number of
controls, groups, and societies. This, obviously, takes into account an
assortment of perspectives, be they financial, social, or political.’ (Rodhan
and Stoudmann, 2006). Rather than concentrating on the various meanings of
globalization this report will rather fundamentally examine a portion of the
segments of globalization. These include: the globalization of business sectors
and promoting, the improvement of world exchange, and worldwide monetary advancement.
Nearby this the inquiry with reference to whether globalization is a power for
good or wickedness will be talked about.

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Globalisation of Markets and Marketing:


Gillespie and
Hennessy express that the ‘world has been advancing toward a solitary worldwide
economy’ with couple of countries having free economies from whatever is left
of the world (Gillespie and Hennessy, 2011). Theodore Levitt made the idea of
globalization well known in his article ‘The Globalization of Markets’ in the
Harvard Business Review in 1983.Levitt recommended that the multinational
company period was being supplanted by a time concentrating on the worldwide
enterprise. Levitt proposed a move far from modifying items to suit the tastes
of nearby markets. Rather extensive organizations should advertise portions
with basic needs offering institutionalized items that are both high caliber
and aggressively estimated. This will take into consideration “colossal
economies of scale underway, appropriation, showcasing, and administration.”


extensive associations have made worldwide progress by following this counsel.
Apple for instance, have possessed the capacity to build up a worldwide brand
with a solid character,  by utilizing a
one size fits all approach for their items (Hovivian, 2014). 

Apple offers
a similar item go in their 481 retail locations and on their site. Nearby this
current, Apple’s site has been intended to appear to be identical over the 125
locales it is converted into. This approach has helped the organization make a
worldwide brand picture concentrating on perfect and moderate outline. However,
despite quite a bit of Apples worldwide achievement being the aftereffect of
offering institutionalized items, the organization understands the significance
of tweaking the clients experience to suit the distinctive nations they work
in. Apple even guarantees each building they decide for their store is in
keeping to the way of life of the nation, for instance ‘the Paris Apple Store
is housed in a Haussmann-sort constructing that is in a perfect world suited to
Parisians’ tastes in engineering’. (Hovivian, 2014). 


Another case is of an organization who has utilized both
customization and institutionalization to grow all-inclusive is Samsung.
Samsung offers an institutionalized item, Smartphones; over every one of the
nations it works in. The area where it has an upper hand over Apple is that
unlike Apple, which offers only communication Gadgets, Samsung is an old
manufacturer of Home Appliances.

The development of world
trade and the relationship between comparative and competitive advantages:

Adam Smith
gives an establishment to understanding world exchange today, ‘Smith considered
exchange to be an approach to advance proficiency since it encouraged rivalry,
prompted specialization, and brought about economies of scale’ (Gillespie and
Hennessy, 2011). 


exchange has kept on developing as of late because of the opening of new
markets and vigorously diminished import levy rates. Close by this exchange the
21st century is changing to join a more prominent concentrate on imperceptible
fares (administrations and abroad speculation) in western economies and a move
far from material creation to innovation in eastern economies, for example,

 Rather than concentrating on the fiscal
benefit of creating a specific item or administration near favorable position
concentrates on the open-door cost to deliver something unique, known as an
exchange off. This hypothesis Conway contends is ‘ regularly utilized as the
foundation of contentions with the expectation of complimentary exchange’
(Conway, 2009). 


favorable position can at present be viewed as a pertinent monetary idea, it
has helped associations exchange a high amount of items/benefits that are
modest to deliver and help diminish transportation costs. Numerous financial
analysts trust Ricardo’s hypothesis ‘underlies world exchange and
globalization, demonstrating that countries can thrive significantly more by
looking outwards instead of inwards’ (Conway, 2009). 


However, some
cutting-edge business analysts contend that relative favorable position isn’t a
sufficiently refined model to clarify the current worldwide commercial center.
They trust that because of the development of capital abroad being not so much
prohibitive but rather more typical contrasted with the nineteenth century when
Ricardo was composing his hypothesis, this current hypothesis’ significance to
the 21st century is restricted. Similar favorable position neglects to indicate
why a nation discovers its relative leeway in one great/benefit and not
another. While likewise, propels in innovation and the web have made a business
opportunity for talented specialists all inclusive, in this way would it be
able to be recommended that relative favorable position is restricted ‘by its
customary concentrate ashore, work, characteristic assets and capital’ (Porter,
No date).


The law of
comparative advantage alludes to the capacity of a gathering (an individual, a
firm, or a nation) to create a specific decent or administration at a lower
opportunity cost than another gathering. It is the capacity to deliver an item
most efficiently given the various items that could be created. 

Now referring
to the Apple vs Samsung debate, because of Apple’s overall credibility in
manufacturing it seems to have comparative advantage over Samsung when it comes
to making smartphones, as Apple has a tendency of retaining its customers often
and because of the overall user experience of the Apple products, it’s
considered to be the most efficient company in the smartphone industry.


A competitive
advantage is leverage over contenders picked up by offering consumers greater
esteem, either by methods for bring down costs or by giving more prominent
advantages and service that legitimizes higher prices. When a firm supports
benefits that surpass the normal for its industry, the firm is said to have an
upper hand over its adversaries. 

Looking back at Apple vs Samsung once again, Samsung almost
certainly has the upper hand here. That is because not only does Samsung have a
wide range of products, it has a vast variety is Smartphones as well. Compared
to Apple, whose Smartphone only target the richer proportion of the market,
Samsung has all sorts of Smartphone for each segment of the market giving the
users somewhat similar user experience that the users of Apple enjoy!

Global Economic


The Bretton Woods Conference of 1945 helped bring about economic
prosperity after WW2, alongside this the IMF (International Monetary Fund) and
World Bank were founded, organisations that ‘still influence global financial
governance’ (The
Economist, 2015). The second
wave of globalisation (1950- 1980), that emerged after this conference helped
industrial countries prosper by focusing on ‘restoring trade relations,
economic growth and stability’ (Lee and Carter, 2012). Since then a third wave
of globalisation has emerged driven by advances in technology. This third wave
has also been regarded as the golden era for developing countries. Developing
economies such as China have been able to utilize their labor and land to
compete amongst developed economies, especially in terms of manufacturing. 


The economic growth amongst developing countries has continued to
outperform that of developed countries. For example, between 2000-2013 the
world’s economy doubled in size, however emerging markets grew by +230% whilst
advanced economies grew modestly by +47% (IMF World Economic Outlook, 2014).
Thus, could it be suggested that the gap between developed and emerging
economies is beginning to narrow. There is certainly evidence for this given
the rate of poverty falling to below 10% in 2015 (The World Bank, 2015), as
well as per captia incomes in emerging markets now exceeding $5,000, the
estimated value of basic living expenses. However, despite the improvements
experienced by emerging economies, the gap between developed and developing
countries still exists. The 2012 regional per capita real incomes figures
highlight this: (IMF World Economic Outlook, 2014)  


economies: $ 7,307, 

economies: $ 41,652

It is clear there are various new realities that have emerged from
the developing global economy. Firstly, the cold war led to the demise of
communism and an understanding that certain economic systems were more
favorable than others. For example, market economies instead of centrally
planned economies. Whilst trade has been replaced by a focus on capital
movements known as ‘casino banking’, ‘The practice whereby a commercial bank
engages in unduly speculative or risky financial activities with the aim of
achieving high profits’ (Oxford Dictionary, 2014).

Alongside this many organisations have adopted a global mindset
and have realised the advantages of introducing integrated supply chains, such
as Tesco’s and Toyota.  The World Bank
has reported that per capita real income grew more than three times faster for
developing countries that lowered trade barriers (5.0% per year) than other
developing countries (1.4% per year) in the 1990s.


In East Asia
and the Pacific, where virtually all countries have embraced outward oriented
development strategies, both trade and GDP have grown together (see graphic
below). This impressive performance was accompanied with equally impressive
poverty reduction.  According to World
Bank data, while in 1981 some 93% of the population in this region lived with
income of less than 2 US dollars per day, by 2005 this figure had fallen to

Have there been issues of
supply chain ethics or provenance:

In the
October 2010 issue of the Harvard Business Review there is a Spotlight article
on “The Transparent Supply Chain”. In this article, writer Stephen
New examines the advancement in Supply Chain from obscurity to
straightforwardness and concentrates on the “quality, security, morals and
ecological effect” of the Supply Chain on the triumvirate of
organizations, clients and government. Updated terms this data as
“Provenance” and this is pertinent both here and there the Supply


New calls
attention to that clients are ending up progressively worried about not just
the credibility of the products they acquired yet in addition the morals of how
the merchandise were fabricated in the Supply Chain. Organizations have for
some time been worried about the nature of merchandise and enterprises they get
from their Supply Chain sellers and following this data can give affirmations
of top notch control. Progressively the third prong of the triumvirate, the
administration, is currently asking for such data and such straightforwardness
in the territory of hostile to debasement and against pay off consistence.  Under both the US Foreign Corrupt Practices
Act (FCPA) and the UK Bribery Act, it is currently important that organizations
bring their Supply Chain merchants into their general consistence programs.



 Globalisation continues to remain a complex and heavily argued
topic in the 21st century. Due        to the various components that make up
the word, it is too simplistic to suggest it is either a force for good or a
force for evil. Instead the answer to this question remains ambiguous. If we
look at the concept of competitive advantage, introduced by Porter,
globalisation has had a significant impact, allowing certain countries and
corporations the opportunity to benefit from lower production costs, untapped
markets, more consumers and greater investment opportunities which in turn has
allowed them to gain a competitive advantage and prosper globally. However, the
relevance of globalisation today far outreaches the notions of competitive
advantage and standardisation introduced by economists such as Porter and
Levitt. Instead one should not just view globalisation from an economic
viewpoint but recognise the political and social implications. 


It is not fair to presume that
globalisation has just helped the rich get richer, because it has helped many
individuals escape extreme poverty. However, the world does remain an unequal
place. The Gini coefficient makes this clear by statistically measuring the
inequality of incomes and wealth. This indicator helps prove that global
inequality is far greater than inequality within a country. For example, ‘The
gap between a poor person in India or Sub-Saharan Africa and the Western upper-class
is an abyss.’ (Devictor, 2014). Evidently previous methods of globalisation
have ‘helped some groups and hurt others’ (Gillespie and Hennessy, p45).
Therefore, the answer that one can make in response to globalisation is that
its future remains unclear.