Introduction Azospirillum transcend nitrogen enrichment through production of growth



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Bio-fertilizer is a substance which contains live or
latent cells of micro-organisms which are applied to seeds or plants or soils
to fix different nutrients and make available to the plant. There are different
types of bio fertilizers used like Azatobactor, Acetobactor, Azospirrilum, PSb,
KSB etc.



Rhizobiums are symbiotic bacteria that fix
atmospheric N2 gas in plant root nodules and have a mutually helpful
relationship with their host plants. The plant roots supply essential minerals
and newly synthesized substances to the bacteria. It is reported that rhizobium
can fix 50-300 kg N/ha.


 It is free
living and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixing organism that also produces certain
substances good for the growth of plants and antibodies that suppress many root
pathogens. They can fix 15-20 kg/ha N per year. Azotobacter can also produce
antifungal compounds to fight against many plant pathogens. They also increase
germination and vigour in young plants leading to improved crop stands.


This is also a nitrogen-fixing micro organism
beneficial for non-leguminous plants. Azospirillum transcend nitrogen
enrichment through production of growth promoting substances.

bacteria (PSB)

Under acidic or calcareous soil conditions, large
amounts of phosphorus are fixed in the soil but are unavailable to the plants.
Phosphobacterins can make insoluble phosphorus available to the plant. The
solubilization effect of phosphobacterins is generally due to the production of
organic acids that lower the soil pH and bring about the dissolution of bound
forms of phosphate. PSB culture increased yield up to 200- 500 kg/ha and thus
30 to 50 kg of super phosphate can be saved.

 Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM)

VAM fungi infect and spread inside the root. They
possess special structures known as vesicles and arbuscules. The plant roots
transmit substances to the fungi, and the fungi aid in transmittingnutrients
and water to the plant roots. The fungal hyphae may extend the root lengths










Bio-Fertilizer in India



Major Companies In Bio-Fertilizer Business

Coromandel Fertilizers

Hindustan Biotech

Ajay Biotech

Tata Rallies

Saraswati Agro

International Biotech

Amar Biotech





















of Baramati Taluka















The total geographical
area (TGA) of Baramati tahsil is 1382 sq. km., which is about 8.80 percent of
TGA of the Pune district. The population of
Baramati as per the census of 2011 is 54,415. among them about 28 thousand
(51%) are male and about 27 thousand (49%) are female.

population of baramati is mostly depend on the agriculture for the major income
source. The land of the baramati region is well irrigated because of the Nira
left canal, Nira river and karhamai river.

major crops grown in the area are Sugarcane. Jowar, Wheat, Maize, Grapes and
Pomegranate. Among this Sugarcane is the major crop because there are three
sugar factories namely Chatrapati sugar factory in Bhavani-Nagar, Malegaon
Co-op sugar factory Malegaon and Someshwar sugar Factory someshwarNagar.

with that due to the presence of KVK near baramati is helping a farmer through
various new technologies and solutions which is the great contributor in the
agricultural development of Baramati .

Major Crops

Name of Crop

Percent area









Fodder crops

















List of Villages in Baramati Tehsil


Review of Literature

Naidu et al. (2002) recorded the influence of
organic manures, chemical and biofertilizers on growth, yield and economics of
brinjal. They observed that organic manure when applied in conjunction with
Azospirillum yielded greater number of fruits with higher girth over nitrogen
with organic manure.

 It is due to
better mobilization of plant nutrients particularly N and P during later stage
of plant growth. It was also noticed that application of organic manure in
combination with Azospirillum yielded at par with N from organic manure.


Sharma (2002) studied the effect of Azospirillum and
different doses of nitrogen on yield of cabbage. The treatments included 3
levels of biofertilizers and 4 levels of nitrogen. Azospirillum application
significantly increased the number and weight of non-wrapper leaves per plant,
head length and width, gross and net weight of head per plant and yield/ha. A
treatment combination of Azospirillum application with 60 kg N/ha resulted in
maximum yields/ha with benefit : cost ratio 2.9.


In a study conducted by Devi et al. (2003) on
cabbage, it was revealed among the various treatments including application of
poultry manure and biofertilizers with Azospirillum brassilense could save 25
per cent nitrogen where cost benefit ratio was 1:4.30.


Gupta and Samnotra (2004) reported 25 per cent
reduction in nitrogen application when Azotobacter and Azospirillum were used
as the organic source of nitrogen in cabbage.




Research Problem

Due to excess use of chemical
fertilizers the lands are degrading day by day.

Environment is getting affected due to
use of chemical fertilizers

So there is need of find out the
challenges and opportunities for use of Bio-fertilizers.


To find out how many farmers are using
the Bio-fertilizers

To study farmers awareness about Bio-fertilizers

To find out the challenges for use of
Bio-fertilizers in Baramati Region

What are the opportunities for
Biofertilizer in the study area


of the Study

Green Revolution in India the agricultural production booms at a very high rate
due to the use of chemical fertilizers and new varieties. From that time the
whole India diverted to the use of chemicals in agriculture and it benefitted a
lot, but it showing the negative impact of that in current situation on
productivity of land, Degradation of land, Quality of produce etc.

But the dependence of
agriculture on chemical uses will harm the agriculture to a greater extent and
loss the soil quality.

For that the Government
of India promoting the use of Bio-fertilizers in agriculture. These
Bio-fertilizers have multiple benefits on the soil and it is also easy to use
and cheaper in price.

These Bio-fertilizers
are naturally occurring in nature and used 100 years ago as a naturally
occurring manure, In ancient times farmers were using but they don’t know the
composition but they use to apply in field and they known its benefits.

But in recent years the
agriculture is went towards chemicals which are synthetic and prepared in the
chemical laboratories, it increased a yield but in recent 10 years it is
showing negative impact on different factors like soil, environment, human
health, animal health and  on future
growth also.

Due to that the farmers
are again interested in Bio-fertilizers as a option for synthetic chemical


Research Methodology


The study includes the
farmers survey against the Awareness, use, problems in Bio-fertilizers use was
carried out in Month of December 2017.

The topic was selected
with the discussion with mentor with the some objectives. Objectives of survey
are to find the awareness and use of Bio-fertilizers in the Baramati region.


Sources of Data

Primary and Secondary
data is collected to meet the specified objectives of the research

Primary Data

Primary data were
collected from the farmers of different villages with the help of
Questionnaire. The questions like Land holding, Crops grown, Bio-fertilizers
using or not, reasons for not using  of
Bio-fertilizers, which Bio-fertilizers used, Reasons, Benefits of
Bio-fertilizer using, Awareness of Bio-fertilizers etc.

 And also asked for their suggestions on
Bio-fertilizers and what needs to be done to improve the use of

Secondary Data

Secondary data about
Bio-fertilizers were collected from different websites, government websites, pages
and research papers to know the sector very well and to see the what  happened in the recent years.




Sampling Method

For the research
Baramati region has been selected and from Baramati taluka 10 villages has been
selected and from each village 15 farmers were selected randomly for the study.


Sample size

From the Baramati
region randomly 10 villages has been selected and from each village 15 farmers
selected on random basis.

So total sample size is
150 farmers for the study as a representative sample.


Research Method

A structured questionnaire
were prepared with the help of faculty mentor to record the information given
by the farmers . Questionnaire was filled by myself as per information given by
the farmers.   


Tools used for Analysis

Microsoft Excel
for entry of Data

Use of different
charts and bars to show the results.