(Intro) it european influence to the post independence era.

(Intro) Architecture in India has evolved from the Indus Valley civilisation to the British colonial architecture with it european influence to the post independence era. In between was architecture characterized by the particular religious and political powers dominating the region. Further, the postcolonial architecture of the region is marked by the fading out of the vernacular language to the contemporary burgeoning of homogenous urban typology in response to the growth of the capitalistic economy marked by the integration of technology and dismissal of the local means and materials used for building systems like heating, cooling, daylighting, and acoustics. The architecture of the post independent India is marked by the liberal economy where various regions saw the imprints of the works of the foreign masters like the Le Corbusier and Louis Kahn. They, among others have succeeded and failed to capture the complex and multilayered Indian society.The role of Indian-origin women architects internationally has been recognised but its scope has been limited to just that. As I pursue my Bachelor in Architecture in the United States, my context and prior experience with the built-environment has been in India. The climatic variations, building materials and economy of labour along with the precision of technology make the building envelope, techniques, and process different from what is commonly taught here.Through the Milka Bliznakov Prize, International Archive of Women in Architecture (IAWA) provided an impetus to further my interest and use the archive to explore the lingering questions on the process of design and construction and the differences and similarities between the two countries. Among the generation of architects building in the period marked by the transition of the socialist state to a liberalised economy are Brinda Somaya and Anupama Kundoo. Thus, in an effort to reduce the gap in accessibility of information through materials, this initiative proposes to procure documents of the work of the two Indian-origin architects: Brinda Somaya and Anupama Kundoo, including but not limited to plans, sections, sketches and, or photographs. This collection process will be followed by analysis and comparison on the aforementioned criteria.SNK Architects represents a diverse practice recognized for its innovation and sensitivity in design. Anupama Kundoo’s architectural innovation through material research lies in low environmental impact structures pursued through practice and academia. those international architects is Roger Anger who designed Auroville: the utopian human settlement Anupama Kundoo’s architectural innovation through material research lies in low environmental impact structures. Starting her own practice in 1990, she has worked on a range of work from her Wall House in Pondicherry which was later exhibited at the 2012 Venice Biennale, to her workshop on ‘Baked In-Situ Mud Structures 1:1’ for students from Cornell University, TU Berlin, TU Darmstadt and ETH Zurich in Auroville, India among her other international educational endeavours of research and teaching spanning TU Berlin, AA School of Architecture London, Parsons New School of Design New York, University of Queensland Brisbane, IUAV Venice and ETSAB Barcelona.Graduating from the prestigious Sir JJ College of Architecture, Mumbai in 1989, Kundoo received her PhD from TU Berlin in 2008. She is currently a professor at the UCJC Madrid where she is the chair of ‘Affordable Habitat’. Along with this, she serves as the Straunch Visiting Critic at Cornell University. Exploring her body of work primarily in the area of architectural innovation through material research is of particular interest to me. This leads me to question her approach to building envelope in cross continental design work. This is done through the case study of the Wall House in Auroville, India. The architect’s house built from 1997 to 2000 was later transplanted and built at 1:1 scale for the 2012 Venice Biennale. At a time where architecture is increasingly becoming a ‘retinal art’ (caught by the hurried eye of the camera) instead of being a ‘situational bodily encounter’, Anupama’s work through its sensitivity and knowledge of local materials used through a contemporary thought process speaks otherwise. The Wall house is an example of that claim as it brings tactility, spatial experience offering experiential depth, plasticity, measures and details crafted by and for the human body. Integration of construction with the realities of the matter and craft further turns architecture which is not limited to the haptic senses. (hegemonic eye)(site) The Wall House is situated in Auroville, which is a communal/universal township partly in the Indian State Tamil Nadu and partly in the Union Territory Puducherry. The area was conceived by “Mother” Mira Alfassa in 1968 who asked the French architect Roger Anger to design it. Precisely, the house is located in Petite Ferme, outside the planned city limits of Auroville in Auromodele, an area designated for research and experimentation. The plateau region is marked by a tropical climate with an average rainfall of 1230mm a year and average maximum and minimum temperatures being 90 °F to 68 °F respectively. Apart from the geography of the wasteland area, the site is hosted in a unique social, cultural and spiritual milieu owing to the influence of the teachings of Sri Aurobindo, on which the town was founded.(program) Moving to Auroville in 1990 and living in a temporary hut-like structure made of natural materials: casuarina round wood, resting on granite stilts; finished with ‘pakamaram’ split-palm slats for flooring, and coconut thatch for roofing tied together with coconut rope and coconut calyx. Transitioning into more permanent housing, the Wall House was the culmination of her ongoing extensive research and experimentation in low-impact building technologies that are environmentally and socio-economically beneficial, by negotiating the balance between hi-tech and low-tech and incorporating everyday materials through techniques that include the participation of those with lower skills and education with few skilled craftsmen.(form)The house is rooted in its location, thus embodying the local characteristics and denying the prevalent homogeneity brought by growing urbanisation or the “frictionless vacuum of technology”, well, a state which India is still to fully reach, but which her international exposure would have experienced. The reflected L shaped plan is suited to provide climatic comfort. It’s elongaged    plan is good to bring in ample daylighting, wind (ask Erman!!!) elongated in E W direction catches the southern light, but closed off  .bedroom open from three sides (which directions?) In her house she uses an array of roofing techniques as an alternative to the reinforced concrete with the intention of reducing the usage of high energy material like steel and concrete.Brick masonry is characterized by the use of achakal, the local village brick that has dimensions of 19, 10 and 3cm. Lime mortar further reduces the usage of cement brick, clay material, arches from pots stacked togetherBoth architects represent different time frames, ways of working and approach. Brinda Somaya has been involved in more large scale commercial projects along with restoration work. Founding her company in a garden shed in Mumbai, India in 1978, today, SNK Architects represents a diverse practice recognized for its innovation and sensitivity in design. She also served as the IAWA Board of Advisors and went on to receive the Baburao Mhatre Gold Medal for Lifetime Achievement given by the Indian Institute of Architects in 2014 and is presently elected as the AD White Professor-at-Large 2017 at Cornell University. Alumnus of Sir JJ College of Architecture, Mumbai University and Smith College, Massachusetts, Somaya went on be the founder trustee of the HECAR foundation (Heritage, Education, Conservation, Architecture, Restoration) where she organised an exhibit on  “Women in architecture: Focus South Asia’ in 2000 which was later donated to the IAWA apart from bringing out several books and documents. The exhibit panels became a starting point of my research. Further, when browsing through the IAWA, I found that it recognizes Indian-origin architects and their role in the years but limits its scope to just that.Brinda’s work in the both the commercial and conservation area intrigues me. The inclusive design approaches is marked by the recycling and reuse of the old site specific materials, including furniture is distinctly seen throughout her conservation projects, weather it is the (give eg.) . Considering the historical importance, Rajabai Clock Tower and the Mumbai University Library building, I am using them as a case study to compare the techniques and building assemblies to the contemporary times. More so, Brinda’s team started the restoration and conservation project with a lack of original drawings. Thus, in addition, this case study will begin to comprehend their approach and process towards conservation Located in Mumbai, Maharashtra, the densely populated Indian city. Designed by English architect, Sir George Gilbert Scott, the Rajabai Tower was built between March 1869 to November 1878 during the colonial period. It was the tallest building then at 280 ft and was named Rajabai after the name of the mother of the person who sponsored the portion of the construction. They fall under Grade I grouping of heritage buildings at Fort Precinct in South Mumbai. “national or historic importance, embodying excellence in architectural style, design, technology and material usage and/or aesthetics…They have been and are the prime landmarks of the region.” and “deserves careful preservation”. In addition, the Central Public Works Department guidelines under the scope for changes mentions that “no interventions be permitted either on exterior or interior of the heritage building or natural features unless it is necessary in the interest of strengthening and prolonging the life of the buildings/or precincts or any part or features thereof. For this purpose, absolutely essential and minimum changes would be allowed and they must be in conformity with the original.”Considering the implications and architectural confines of the prompt along with the lack of available resources to refer back to makes it a special case study forcing me extract and learn more from the firm’s process.The project included architectural, structural, services and interior works, including making a future maintenance proposal for this 136 year building. This occurred in two phases, the first one being that of the total structural and ornamental repairs to the two heritage buildings, followed by the second phase involving furniture and electrification. (existing building remarks) The Neo-Gothic architecture is marked by the usage of four different stones: Malad and Grey Green Basalt for the Masonry work, and Porbundar and Red Dharangdhara Stone for the architectural detailing. The Library building was completed in 1874 and the Clock Tower was completed in 1878. Initial condition mapping revealed visual defects which were structural and non-structural in nature. Cracks, stains and effloresce on stone facades, water seepage, broken and missing architectural elements and details, biological growth on the façade, damaged flooring and ceiling, damaged door and window panels, peeled plaster, exposed wiring, etc were noticed. To address and analyse the structural concerns, non-destructive tests (NDT) were carried  out to identify the level of deterioration of the structural members such as endoscopy investigation on the joints of the wooden truss members, Test for loss of section & extent of corrosion, chemical analysis and weldability test for steel sections, tensile & compressive strength of the structural wooden sections, electrosonic damp detection and moisture meter tests, petrography test for different stones and plumb test for the tower was also carried out. Being a Heritage building that functions as a University Library, a building assessment was also carried out for upgradation of the structure with respect to current standards and codes. A fire safety proposal was prepared where the buildings were analyzed to fit the current code of requirements.