In macroeconomic variable, there
is a main problem in between scientists, experts, scholars to hand-picked an
accurate estimating process. This work can be divided into two main styles. In past
approach the purpose is to find specific predictors with maximum material for
the target variable. On the other hand, the second approach is too concise the
huge material into a minor no of effective predictors. There are many
predictors which are using to forecast the macroeconomic variables. Heuristic
optimization like genetic algorithm, sequential testing is use in Model
selection and the system of principal components, partial least squares and
Bayesian shrinkage regression works in the Model reduction as stated by (Kapetanios, Marcellino,
& Papailias, 2016)
Kodongo and Ojah (2016) describes that while studying the reports of AFDB/UNDP/OECD
there is a complete plan to encourage the supportable development in Sub
Saharan Africa. This report is discussed on the source of macroeconomic
stability, to safeguard political, create the positive surroundings for doing a
business, boost the proper working of business markets and deliver the funds,
resources to public and organization investment. Physical connection to public
arrangements like telecommunication, highways, road, airports, water supply
system, electricity and the remaining treatment services. So therefore it is
better for a superiority life to improve the human development through increase
productivity and economic growth.
The impact of corruption and
factors on economic growth in some selected transitional economies in the
period of 1990-2004. In 1940’s there is an opportunity with other countries
through opened financial plans that is multi-side dealing. These countries are
situated in central Asia and Europe. In 1991 after the downfall of Soviet Union
these countries started the liberalization and some countries are developing
faster and become more stable like Vietnam and Hungary. Breakdown of Soviet
Union and results corruption in countries, poverty, unemployment as described by (Aluchna, Ishola Mobolaji, & Omoteso, 2009).
Adrián Risso and Sánchez Carrera (2012) Said that the long run relationship between inequality in china
and economic growth results to be negative. In developing countries there is a
negative relationship and also in rich countries there is no relations.
Basically inequality will generate from those people who move away from main
old-style activities that produces a low marginal product. Chinese tried to
join their planning with market oriented developments to increase productivity,
living standards and technological quality without improving employment, price
rises and reasonable shortfalls.
Governments’ and private business
focus on their policy results in the planning of their large capacity of
economic. One main objective which is defines that how economic indicator play
an important role for the United States and also for a North America collective
number of market concerned with countries and the second objective is the role
of Dr. Geoffrey H. Moore in this development. Some problems about combination
and grouping of economic indicators which is classify to measure business
cycles on national and sectorial bases as
viewed by (Boehm, 2001).
Guerard (2001) narrated that the comparing
of transfer function model and several naïve models then testing through these
models which model is best for accurate forecast of real GDP. The aim of study
is to look on a time series and test the hypothesis for a GDP to forecast real
output in United States.
In the late 1980’s James
stock and Mark Watson developed a coincident of index for the US economy that
published by the Department of commerce. They use a Kalman filter to estimate a
single factor of the national economy and Stock Watson estimates the coincident
index of 50 states. At state level such a indexes are suitable for a length and
depth. Real gross state product is commonly used as a indicator which measures
a economic activity. (THE REVIEW OF
In the beginning of 19th
century the groups of Spain and Portugal
is doing a exporting business such as raw material with European countries like
Gold, silver, clothing, iron and manufacturing products. In 1990’s Asia and
Russian business crisis have extremely effect the Latin American countries and
in 2008 there is a Great depression which was hit to Latin American countries
as a result of depression the demand of products is fallen and also decrease in
exports incomes as explained by (Akisik, 2014).
Changyong, Jun, and Chen (2012) Explains that after the second World War in 1960’s there is
a increasing number of developing countries who adopt a policy to provide the
funds to help a trade and industry development such as Brazil and Asian
economies and after 1980’s some developing countries are facing the
difficulties paying off debts like Mexico, Latin America, Argentina, Brazil.
IMF and banks help these countries to paying their debts.
The aim of study is the
relationship between variety, market concentration, and economic growth with
different stages of economic development that changes the arrangement of
manufacture and consumption in economy. There are some different stages of
economic development like product variety among the excellence of final things,
Prices and quality based on customer likings by less wealthy and wealthy income
classes. We use some models which are different from other models and there are
work which is contributes in three means. Firstly the level of demand based on
customer liking or disliking. This article focus on relation between variety,
market concentration and study different stages for the economic development.
Secondly there is a communication between the concentration of demand and
supply which is linked to our model like different layers of managers, workers
with their different income e.g. some layers are small there layers of
management is limited and some layers are large and level of management are
many. Having the idea by (Ciarli & Valente, 2016).
In economic works there is a
slower economic development than in supply poor countries. It is opposite
perception that in economic growth natural supply increases investment and
incomes in a country. South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore are the fastest
growing and developing countries but they are resource poor countries and while
the Congo, Nigeria are the slowest and poor development countries but they are resource
rich countries as well. After the discovery of oil there is a responsibility of
slow growth countries like Nigeria, Congo to consider weak institutions.
Resources such as farm of crops and minerals are cause slow growth countries
than the other resources like wheat, rice.
Viewed by (Gerelmaa & Kotani, 2016)
Nyasha and Odhiambo (2015) Explains that the purpose of study is the relationship
between markets based financial development and economic development. In market
based financial some different studies are trust on bank development and concentration
on different countries, groups, periods, variables, methodologies which are
used in market finance.
Rehman (2016) Describes that there is a
relationship between FDI and economic growth. Foreign investment is an
important factor for economic growth. Domestic economy receives more benefits
and high investment in human capital compared to that economy which is low
capacity. This study examine the impact of FDI on economic growth of Pakistan.
Two models are used to consider the time series data of Pakistan from
In the late 1970’s the US
macroeconomics indicators has evaluating the time series and accurate the
forecast which is provided by Money Markets services. The other eight
stationary series are median forecasts and the customer prices and the
personnel income are the survey forecasts. As viewed by (Schirm, 2003)
Shahbaz and Mafizur Rahman (2014)Said that the relationship between exports expand, financial
development and economic growth of Pakistan. Some studies are focus on
developed financial facilities to the sectors through export expansion results
in economic growth. Some growing industries are the experience of learning,
technological improvements, human capital. In industries the growth of domestic
demand is lower than growth of output and results some products are sold in
foreign markets and then there is a development in exports and economic growth
also. If consumer demands are more exportable and non-traded goods then there
is a negative growth export also reduction in exports growth.
David C. Schism
The purpose of this article is
to investigate the rationality of two survey forecasts of selective U.S. The
research compares the rationality of survey forecast data from Money Market
Services This article extends prior research that has evaluated the rationality
of Money Market Services data for earlier time periods while also evaluating
similar consensus forecast
James H. Stock
In 1990 company found both
statically and negatively relationship in which company conduct the survey and
there are many directions in which the analysis in this paper could be
extended. One interesting issue that we discussed earlier is whether we have
found a pure sunspot type of expectation shock or whether information about
real fundamentals plays an important role.
Seonghwan Oh and Michael
The success of EIA its more
economic development and mr grofen work hard in 1970 and reach its company to
its successful Recent notable additions (inspired largely by Moore, as were the
comparable indexes for other countries) have been the development of leading
and coincident indexes for India (see: Dua and Banerji 1999; Banerji and Dua
2000; and Dua and Banerji 2001a and 2001b). moore dictatorship above.
ERNST A. BOEHM
In this article relationship
between exports financial development and economic growthGrowth affects trade
(Rodriguez and Rodrik, 2000 cited in Won et al. (2008)) This is known as the
relation between trade regime/outward orientation and growth in the development
economics literature (Edwards, 1993). Financial sector development is
considered as a potential source of comparative advantage for a country.
Countries with a well-developed financial sector.
FDI and economic growth: empirical evidence from Pakistan
The relationship between FDI
and economic growth Two models have been used to analyze the time series data
on Pakistan from 1970 to 2012 FDI examined important economic growth this
empirical study implies that Pakistan should improve its economic growth.
Pakistan is going through war on terror and foreign firms are reluctant to
invest (see Shabaz et al., 2011).
Economic growth and market-based financial systems: a review
The aim of this article based
on causal relationship between markets based financial development and economic
growth Overall, this review concludes that the relationship between
market-based financial development and economic growth is not clear-cut; hence,
the argument that market-based financial development unambiguously leads to
economic growth can only be taken with caution. • The proxy used to measure the
level of market-based financial development; • the level of development of the
sample countries; • the data sets and the methodology used; and • the control
variables used, among other factors.
. Gerelmaa K. Kotani
One of the surprising findings
in the economic literature is that natural resource-rich countries tend to have
slower economic growth than resource-poor countries do, i.e., the natural
resource curse and Dutch disease we examined the “resource curse” phenomenon
using quintile regression methods and the most updated data Our findings are
also consistent with Sachs and Warner’s famous results at 25th, 50th and 75th
quintile. We next used the World Bank’s measure of natural resource We next
used the World Bank’s measure of natural resource capital stocks to investigate
the effect of natural resource abundance in 1990 on growth between 1990 and
Tommaso Ciarlia, Marco Valenteb
We study the relation between
variety, market concentration, and economic growth, along different phases of
economic development economic growth, structural change,
market concentration, consumer dynamics, product variety focus on three aspects
of struc- 5 tural change which are linked and are related to variety, market
concentration, and economic growth: (i) product variety, measured as
disparities among the quality of final goods; (ii) firm based on mark ups
related to quality of goods 3 consumer preference related to goods and quality .
Odongo Kodongo, Kalu Ojai
use System GMM to estimate a
model of economic growth augmented by an infrastructure variable, for a panel
of 45 Sub-Saharan African countries, over the period 2000–2011set out in this
paper to explore the true nature of the relation between public infrastructure
and economic growth in more comprehensive ways than have hitherto been done the
effects of infrastructure access and quality on economic growth and
development, respectively; (2) the effects of increments in infrastructure
access and quality on economic growth; and (3) the intermediating effects of
these infrastructure measures on ‘most infrastructure pertinent’ drivers of