In Before carrying out observations and recordings of the

In this essay, I am going to talk about the children learning through classroom talk. I have seen that children’s learning happens through social constructivism. Before carrying out observations and recordings of the year 2 class which I attended, I had to ensure I considered some ethical issues (Appendix 3). I gained permission firstly from the Headteacher and Assistant Head to allow me to audio record for Teacher talking such as instructional talk or giving information, Teacher talking to children in a dialogic fashion and children talking to each other in a dialogue about the learning without an adult intervening- which can be a pair, trio or group of four. I also gained permission from the class teacher and the children and made sure they understood why I was recording for an assignment work for PGCE course. I familiarised children with the recording process by iPhone. I also ensured teacher that the participants involved remained anonymous by their names.Learning, is the “process that results in a relatively enduring change in a person or persons” (Alexander et al, 2009: 186). According to Winn (1990), learning is a dynamic process whereby the students’ knowledge and skills are different, when compared before to after learning. Since ‘teaching’ is the promotion of learning, our knowledge of learning and the corresponding theories in how we learn should inform our teaching (Muijs, 2007).Constructivism is a synthesis of multiple theories diffused in to one form. It is the assimilation of both behavioural and cognitive ideals. The “constructivist stance maintains that learning is a process of constructing meaning; it is how people make sense of their experience” (Merriam and Caffarella, 1999, p. 260). It is a level of de-velopment at which learning takes place. It comprises cognitive structures that are still in the process of maturing, but which can only mature under the guidance of or in collaboration with others. Mvududu and Thiel-Burgess (2012) state that construc-tivism is widely touted as an approach to probe for children’s level of understanding and to show that that understanding can increase and change to higher level think-ing. Thus, constructivism refers to how of learning and thinking. Constructivism de-scribes the way that the students can make sense of the material and how the mate-rials can be taught effectively. With Constructivism as an educational theory in mind, the teachers should consider what students know and allow their students to put their knowledge in to practice. Here, Constructivism gives an insight of knowledge which learners have already developed through response and environ-mental stimuli. While Social constructivism is a type of constructivism which is that highlighted the role of language and culture in cognitive development. According to Vygotsky (1978, 57),Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level and, later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary at-tention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals.Piaget and Inhelder (1969) suggest that discovery is the most important and funda-mental basis of learning. While Vygotsky (1978) believes that Piaget’s emphasis fo-cuses too much on internal processes of individuals. Vygotsky considers cognitive development primarily as a function of external factors such as cultural, historical, and social interaction rather than of individual construction.According to many educators such as Bailey and Pransky (2005) agree with Vygot-sky (1978) about the importance of culture in construction of knowledge, yet Bailey and Pransky (2005) emphasize that pedagogical theories such as constructivism don’t consider the deep impact of culture on learning and knowledge. They argued that Piaget failed to understand that learning is a collaborative process. Vygotsky emphasise two different levels of developments. The level of actual development is the level of development that the learner has already reached and is the level at which the learner can solve problems independently. The level of the ‘zone of prox-imal development’ is the level of development that the learner can reach under the guidance of teachers or in collaboration with peers. According to Vygotsky, learning happens through collaborative process where it should be followed by teaching using collaborative learning methods. It requires that learners should develop teamwork skills and to see individual learning as es-sential related to the success of group learning. “Communities of Practice’ (Lave and Wenger,1991) Teacher need to be aware that the process of learning happens through peer interaction. Discussion can be promoted by the presentation of specif-ic concepts or problems and guided by directed questions, the introduction an