Human trafficking involves the use of fraud, force and or coercion, to obtain labor or commercial sexual exploitation. Trafficking does not only include the transport, transfer or procurement of an individual; it is also the ability of the trafficker to benefit, or earn goods, money or anything of value for the labor or sex act of the people being trafficked. Human trafficking is a known but hidden crime due to the fact that victims rarely come forward. Reasons for them not coming forward are due to them being too afraid to come forward, they are still currently being exploited and have no way out or they are dead. every country in the world is affected by human trafficking each year countless men, woman and children are victims of trafficking abroad and in their own countries.The History of Human Trafficking Human trafficking is an elaborate crime that generally transpires over time. As I will be discussing later, there are factors such as economic, global and political instability in certain regions of the world, together with large-scale and epidemic instances of poverty and disenfranchisement of entire groups of people, contribute to making humans vulnerable victims of human trafficking. Although human trafficking is described as the modern-day form of slavery. Selling and enslaving human’s is not a new occurrence. For example, Ancient Egypt, used slaves to build its immense pyramids. During the 15th century Portugal, sold and purchased slaves from Africa and Europe. The Transatlantic Slave Trade between Africa, Europe and the America’s during the 18th century facilitated the sale of humans sometimes in exchange for weapons (Bales, 2005). The history of the United States is also immersed in slavery. Prior to the Civil War, it was not uncommon for southern plantation owners to sell their slaves at public auction. Although not yielding large profits, the sale of slaves was an established business, since they were so desperately needed for the economic subsistence of the South. Slaves were considered an inexpensive and dependable source of labor, albeit a forced and exploitative one. The passing of the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery in 1865, finally put a stop to the physical and sexual abuse endured by slaves in the United States. Today, the exploitation of humans for various types of labor and sex continues to thrive. Humans are used for a variety of servitude, including the following: Farm labor, domestic servitude, Begging, Restaurant and construction work as well as housekeeping and criminal activities. Pretty much any form of labor. In the United States, prostitution is the most common form of trafficking, followed by agricultural work (U.S. Department of State, 2008). Prostitution is also the most common type of trafficking worldwide. Globally, as well as in the United States, women are most often victims of human trafficking followed by children, primarily girls (United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime UNODC, 2006). Major Contributing Factors to Human Trafficking Human trafficking is based on the simple economic principles of supply and demand (Shelley, 2003). Global poverty is one of the major contributors to human trafficking because it creates a vulnerable supply of victims. Political instability and civil war contribute to human trafficking because they also cause people to flee regions and countries. Refugees and people displaced from their homes, in general, are vulnerable to human trafficking usually because dreams of a better life cloud their judgment regarding employment opportunities (Farr, 2005). Of course, most of these individuals are deceived into believing that employment opportunities are legitimate. Natural disasters such as the Tsunami in 2004 that affected Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and India, contributed to substantial displacement of people. The unfortunate occurrence, however, created a perfect situation for traffickers. Reports indicated that a large percentage of children became victims of human trafficking as the result of this natural disaster (U.S. Department of State, 2008).Culture also plays a role in human trafficking. There are some countries in Africa that practice what is known as child fostering (Bales, 2005). This means that underprivileged families that cannot otherwise provide an education for their children send them to live with relatives in hopes that the children will be educated or at least learn a trade. Some parents may even send their children to stay with nonrelatives. Every so often, relatives or nonrelatives will sell the children because the burden of taking care of them has taken a toll on the economic livelihood of the family, or they will sell them simply to make a profit. In some developing countries, abject poverty coupled with the need to ensure that daughters marry for the sake of alleviating the economic burden on the family make daughters vulnerable to human trafficking. Farr (2005) reports that in Nepal, for example, this type of trafficking is common. All of the above factors (poverty, globalization, economic marginalization, the feminization of poverty, political instability, civil war, natural disasters, and culture) are also referred to as the push factors of human trafficking because they all serve to push the most vulnerable individuals into positions where the likelihood of becoming a victim is high. However, human trafficking also has pull factors. These are the factors that contribute to the massive transportation of humans from one side of the globe to the other. Wealth, economic prosperity, and countries willing to look the other way regarding the hiring of illegal immigrants are just a few examples of pull factors. Germany, Greece, France, Belgium, Italy, and the United States are all top destination countries for human trafficking victims (Mizus et al., 2003).Traffickers, Their Victims, and the People Who Buy Humans Although worldwide data on offenders, victims, and customers are limited, the UNODC (2006) recently compiled a profile of both offenders and victims based on information provided by various law enforcement agencies, government reports, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), research reports, and media reports. Offender Characteristics: A significant number of people who earn a living buying, transporting, and selling humans live and conduct their illegal business from the following list of countries: Iran, Uzbekistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, North Korea. Russia, Nigeria, Ukraine, Albania, Thailand, Turkey, China, Poland, Germany, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Mexico, Romania.