Homeostasis snow storm. The body would start to shiver,

Homeostasis
is maintaining a constant internal balance within the body, which can adjust to
extreme external conditions/factors. Cold blooded organisms for example are
unable to maintain and regulate their internal body temperature, and so when they
become too cold they are slow. Therefore, this means that ectotherms, rely on
external factors such as the sun to regulate their temperature. On the other
hand, warm blooded organisms are able to regulate and maintain their body
temperature by carrying out exercise. Due to homeostasis, both the nervous and
endocrine system will maintain a core body temperature, resulting in shivering
when it is too cold at low temperatures or sweating if the temperature rises.
During exercise, we can maintain body temperature as we sweat to cool down. To
account for this loss in water, there will be a decrease in the production of
urine. ATP is produced from the stores of glucose, therefore breathing becomes
faster which will provide the body with more oxygen and also heart rate will
increase meaning that blood can be pumped around the body at a faster rate.

The
body is able to maintain our temperature, even if we are surrounded by extreme
conditions e.g. a snow storm, or extreme heat, this is due to homeostasis. If
we were in extreme heat, homeostasis would occur to ensure that we survive. The
body would start to sweat and the process of vasodilation would occur, cooling
down the body. The opposite would then happen if we were in a snow storm. The
body would start to shiver, producing heat and also vasoconstriction would
occur, rising body temperature. If however, homeostasis did not occur this
would then start to cause problems as the body would be unable to recognise the
changes within the environment and respond to them appropriately.

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If
we are in extremely hot conditions for a long period of time, the enzymes in
the body will start to denature and this in turn results in the body cells
dying. This is known as hyperthermia. Due to this homeostatic mechanisms will
stop working and so the hypothalamus can no longer function. If there is an
excessive amount of sweating, too much salt may be lost from the body, making
ions in the blood fall out of balance, leading to cramps in the muscles. This
extreme heat can also effect the messages from the brain to both the nerves and
spinal cord slowing them down. Dehydration may also occur, meaning that the
kidneys will hold on to urea and ammonium, however, this can be dangerous, as
these toxins need to be removed. The heart may also start to beat faster as it
needs to maintain blood pressure, therefore blood vessels will dilate.

On
the other hand, if the body was exposed to extremely cold conditions,
homeostasis still may not work. Hypothermia is define as when the core body
temperature drops to below the norm for bodily functions to be carried out
efficiently and so chances of survival would decrease. Shivering may occur
however, this may not work and so when hypothermia gets more severe it will
stop. Heart rate and breathing rate will decrease and there may also be an
incontinence of urine due to the kidneys having a larger workload which also
relates to the blood being shunted to the major organs (better health channel. If
there was no action taken to support homeostasis then the body would eventually
shut down, resulting in death.

A
continuous supply of glucose is required by the body to carry out normal
metabolism. This glucose is then converted to ATP. B-cells of Langerhans are
stimulated, releasing insulin into the blood if the blood glucose levels rise,
leading to a decrease in these levels. The opposite then happens if blood
glucose levels fall. The a- cells of Langerhans, releases glucagon into the
blood, rising blood glucose levels. In relation to blood glucose, if there was
a homeostatic imbalance it could result in the development of type 1 diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is when beta cells in the pancreas are destroyed, therefore,
preventing the body from producing enough insulin to regulate blood glucose
levels. This is also known as hyposecretion of insulin. If blood glucose levels
get too low, then hypoglycaemia may occur. Diabetes can also lead to long term
complications such as heart disease, stroke or kidney disease just to name a
few. Diabetes is an example of what may happen if the homeostatic mechanism
fails.

Homeostasis
helps to control breathing rate. The respiratory centre and chemoreceptors
regulate the breathing rate by sending information to the medulla. This in turn
increases carbon dioxide levels in the blood, and nerve impulses are then sent
to respiratory muscles. These muscles are then informed that they have to work
harder, ensuring that there is a sufficient supply of oxygen in the blood. If
the mechanism happened to fail, oxygen supplies in the blood would be
insufficient, as there the blood would contain an increased amount of carbon
dioxide. This may cause problems as the body needs oxygen for all body cells to
work efficiently carrying out their bodily functions and without which, the
body would shut down.

The
medulla also controls heart rate as well as the sinus node. The sinus node
receives information, responding accordingly, depending on the body’s needs. An
example of this would be if the body isn’t receiving enough oxygen for the
muscles to work efficiently during exercise, meaning the sinus node would then
give instructions for the heart to work faster, pumping the blood around the
body quicker and at a stronger force. If the homeostatic mechanism was not
initiated due to problems with either the medulla or the sinus node, the body
would become oxygen deprived and so would result in a heart attack, resulting
in possible death if the body was to be left in this way for a period of time.

 

In
conclusion, homeostatic mechanisms in the body are vital for survival and
without such mechanism, it may result in heart failure and possibly even death,
highlighting just how important it is.