carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, but it ranks as the
second most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. There has been a
marked increase in HCC-related annual death rates during the past two decades.
Thus, HCC represents a major public health problem.(1).
of patients for HCC has been reported to confer a survival benefit. Patients
who are identified early have multiple treatment options leading to improved
However, in clinical settings, only
approximately 30% to 40% of patients with HCC can get effective treatment at
the right time, and few molecules have been used as clinical biomarkers for
HCC. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), AFP lectin fraction (AFP-L3), and des-?-carboxy
prothrombin (DCP, also known as proteins induced through vitamin K deficiency
or antagonist-II, PIVKA-II) have been used as conventional serum tumor markers,
However, these markers often show false-positive results, and lack sufficient
sensitivity and specificity. (3).
Micro RNAs (MiRNA) are a
special type of short endogenous non-coding RNA with a length of ~22 nt. MiRNAs
are usually regarded as gene repressors at the post-transcriptional level
through binding to the 3?-UTRs of the target mRNAs. (4) . Since many key biological processes including the development,
differentiation, and cell cycles are regulated by microRNAs, the abnormal
expression of microRNAs is often associated with the initialization and progression
of many diseases. Thus, miRNAs usually could serve as suitable biomarkers for
many diseases, such as neurodevelopmental disorders, cancer, and cardiovascular
The deregulation of specific
miRNAs has been identified in HCC, including miR-148a, miR-203, miR-138, miR-122
and miR-124. Therefore, these miRNAs may become potential therapeutic targets
or candidates for HCC treatment. (6).
In our study, we will
conduct a case control study to evaluate the association between miRNA 196a2
rs11614913 and MiRNA 34 b/c rs4938723 polymorphism with the risk of