Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are organisms that have been injected with new properties into the gene code of foreign genes.
GMOs are divided into the following types:
-genetically modified microorganisms (GMM);
– genetically modified animals (GMV);
– genetically modified plants (GMR).
Genetically modified organisms are created by methods of genetic engineering – a science that allows the introduction of a DNA fragment from any other organism into the genome of a microorganism, an animal or a plant in order to give it certain properties. For example, to deduce a breed of pigs with lean meat they built a spinach gene; to deduce a frost-resistant tomato in its genes, the gene of Arctic flounder was built; for the breeding of rice resistant to pests, the gene of the human liver was added to its genes, and scorpion genes were built in for the development of drought-resistant wheat varieties.
The important difference between genetically modified organisms and natural ones is that they are absolutely sterile. That is, the seeds of such plants do not germinate, and the animals do not produce offspring. The introduction of alien genes of some species or classes in others leads to genetic malfunction, blocking of reproduction processes. This is a protective mechanism for the conservation of species, the protest of nature against interference in its laws.
The use of genetically modified foods
There is no confirmed scientific research pointing to the risk of using approved genetically modified products today. Genetically modified foods have advantages. For example, there are fewer chemicals in them than in their natural counterparts. Some genetically modified plants themselves destroy herbicides – due to the content of a special enzyme. And all products derived from genetically modified plants are tested for biological and food safety.
Genetically modified foods are more resistant to all kinds of viruses and bacteria. They are stored longer.
The goals of genetic technology applied to animals are usually to accelerate their growth and increase their mass. Cows with increased fat content in milk and salmon were obtained, which grow very fast and do not need to migrate from fresh water to fresh water.
Differences of genetically modified products:
Tomatoes – an external glossy impeccable appearance and an infinite shelf life.
Potato – resistance to pests and increased yield.
Bananas are medicinal properties (they produce a vaccine against poliomyelitis).
Bread with the addition of genetically modified enzymes for a long time does not become stale.
Tobacco acquires resistance to pesticides.
Proponents of genetically modified foods claim that genetic engineering will save the world’s growing population from hunger.
According to the estimates of consumer organizations, 52 product names containing more than 5 percent of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), but not labeled, are now on the Russian market. In total, more than 120 names (brands) of genetically modified products are registered in Russia, according to the data of voluntary registration and a special register of products imported from abroad.
Of genetically modified products, soybean is the most widely spread in Russia. It is often added to sausage, sausages, sour cream, milk, other dairy products, sweets, confectionery, infant formulas and even bread. Any soy contains phytoestrogen (a female sex hormone of plant origin), which negatively affects the reproductive function and the human brain. Even an ordinary soy adult person is not recommended to eat more than 30 grams a day, and children and it is not recommended at all.
In cheap meat-processing products, the content of genetically modified soybeans can reach 70 – 90%. Also, there is a chance to meet her in chicken and unprocessed meat, especially in frozen, before freezing, solutions containing syrup soy, which increase the weight of the product, are often added using syringes. 40% of all meat in Russia comes from abroad, and this, as a rule, is meat of livestock, which is fattened by GM-soy, and it means that it also contains GMOs.
Of other genetically modified products, tomatoes, strawberries, peppers, carrots and eggplants are also on the market. As a rule, they are distinguished by an ideal presentation, the ability to store for a long time and a strange taste; for example, hm-strawberry is not as sweet as natural. GM-potatoes, on the other hand, can not be stored for a long time and after 3 to 4 months of storage rot. Therefore, it is used in the production of chips and starch, which is added to many products.
There are also such genetically modified foods as zucchini and squash. There is an ug-sugar beet and sugar made from it. There are also imported gm-onions (onion, shallots, leeks) and imported gm-rice.
Many varieties of dried fruits, including raisins and dates, can be covered with soybean oil. Give preference to dried fruits, which do not contain the presence of vegetable oil.
Honey may contain gm-oil rape. If the label says “imported honey” or “production of several countries”, then it is better not to buy honey.