Enhancing in designing structured learning experiences and it was

Enhancing
learning for Basic Electrical Engineering subject using course website as a teaching
tool

Rashmita Kumari Mohapatra

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Assistant Prof (TCET, Mumbai)

[email protected]

Sonali Singh

Assistant Prof (TCET, Mumbai)

[email protected]

Nikhil Tiwari

Assistant Prof (TCET, Mumbai)

[email protected]

Abstract: One of
the challenges faced by an entrant of an
undergraduate course studying Basic Electrical Engineering is in understanding
the fundamentals of Direct Current (D.C. 
) & Alternating Current circuits (A.C.). In order to address the
challenge, a course website was
introduced to enhance the learning in D.C. & A.C. circuits. Animated videos
play an important role within the frame of teaching and learning in education
across the world. To improve the performance of students in continuous internal
evaluation (CIE), there was a need to improvise their understanding the
concepts of D.C. & A.C. circuits; hence this activity was planned and
implemented. The website was design
with help of Google site. This online tool was applied in designing structured
learning experiences and it was targeted to enhance understand the fundamentals
of D.C. & A.C. circuits. Students were encouraged to study online material
given on website. After this some predefined activity was done. The response
from the students’ feedback showed that they were more satisfied with simulation assignment compared to
conventional one; it helped them to understand theoretical concepts better. It also showed increased involvement in
learning during the activity. The performance in CIE was compared with semester
end examination (SEE), and it was found that the students’
performance in SEE showed significant improvements in understanding the concepts of a.c. circuits. The work presented in this paper summarizes the effectiveness of
simulation package used in enhancing teaching and
learning in fundamental course of electrical engineering.

Flipped instruction or a flipped
classroom is a form of blended learning in which students learn new content
online by watching video lectures, usually at home, and what used to be homework
(assigned problems) is now done in class with teachers offering more
personalized guidance and interaction with students, instead of lecturing. This
is also known as backwards classroom, flipped classroom, reverse teaching, and the
Thayer Method. In our study, thirty percent of the course content was flipped. Results
on two of the courses used as pilot will be presented and discussed.

 

Keywords: Course
Website, Electrical, Learning, Teaching, Flipped classroom, reverse teaching
and

backwards classroom.

A.      Literature
Review

 

In
fundamental Electrical Engineering course, D.C. & A.C. circuit’s analysis
topic is a requirement for electrical engineering technology curricula.
Typically, this course has been taught
using traditional methods where a set of concepts are presented to the students
in the classroom. Different teaching methodologies have been adopted to help
students learn the topic better. Kulatunga (1999), for instance, implemented computer-based review sessions to
improve students’ conceptual understanding of electrical circuits 1. Starting with the hypothesis that if
students participated in interactive review sessions on concepts taught before
new concepts were introduced, these students would be more likely to apply
what they learned to complex problems
more successfully. Reisslein et al. (2005) investigated the impact of
text- and pictorial-based instruction prompts in a computer based learning
environment created for electrical circuit analysis on learning 2. Other theoretical and pedagogical methods for circuit
analysis courses are abundant in the literature, including using behavioral
analysis to increase student confidence, student-designed web-based learning program, multimedia teaching tools, and
improving student’s life-long learning skills via
student-centered teaching and learning
3. Other techniques of teaching
that are applicable to circuit analysis courses include the work by Michael
Prince (2005) on cooperative learning
in freshmen courses
4.

  

     He studied the literature on active learning. Active Learning refers to “any instructional
method that engages the students in the learning process.” Prince defines
collaborative learning as “any instructional method
in which students work together in small groups toward a common goal.”
Finally, cooperative learning involves “a structured form of group work where
students pursue common goals while being assessed
individually.” Karla A. Smith et al. (2005) 5 focuses on classroom-based
pedagogies of engagement, particularly cooperative and problem-based learning. It includes a brief history, theoretical
roots, research support, summary of practices, and suggestions for redesigning engineering classes and programs to include more student engagement. Authors also lay out the research ahead for advancing pedagogies aimed at more fully enhancing students’ involvement
in their learning. R. Pucher et al. (2002)
6 tried to deal with the motivation of
students.

         

         The main motivation of students is of course to       achieve good test results and only the lesser focus lies on the specific
contents of the subject The authors tried to develop a method, which allows the
students to focus their intrinsic motivation onto the study project itself and not onto the extrinsic motivation,
namely test results. The proposed work in this paper is the motivation from varied authors who tried to make learning much simpler. An activity was conducted for the entrants of engineering course for the course basic
electrical engineering.

Flipped
Class room

The traditional pattern of teaching has been
to assign students to read textbooks and work on problem sets outside of
college, while listening to lectures and taking tests in class. In Flipped
instruction, the students first study the topic by themselves, typically using
video lessons prepared by the teacher 1, 2 or third parties. In class
students apply the knowledge by solving problems and doing practical work
3-5. The teacher tutors the students when they become stuck, rather than
imparting the initial lesson in person. Complementary techniques include 6
differentiated instruction and project-based learning 7. Teachers are
blending the advantages of flipped learning with traditional in-class lecturing
through tools like eduCanon that keep students accountable to video lessons at
home through time-embedded formative assessments 8. Flipped classrooms free
class time for hands-on work 9. Students learn by doing and asking questions.
Students can also help each other, a process that benefits both the advanced
and less advanced learners 10. Flipping also changes the allocation of
teacher time. Traditionally, the teacher engages with the students who ask
questions — but those who don’t ask tend to need the most attention. ?We refer
to ?silent failers,’? said one teacher, claiming that flipping allows her to
target those who need the most help rather than the most confident. Flipping
changes teachers from ?sage on the stage? to ?guide on the side?, allowing them
to work with individuals or groups of students throughout the session 10. The
philosophy behind the flip is that teachers can spend time working with
students who need their help in the classroom and students can work together to
solve problems rather than sitting home alone with work they might not
understand with nobody to ask for help. The purpose of this research study is
to analyze the effectiveness in flipping thirty percent of the course content.

 

 

 

                    

   Flipped
Instruction

 

The study of flipped classrooms was based on
the theory of Bloom’s revised taxonomy of cognitive domain. This taxonomy
provides six levels of learning. The explanation is arranged from the lowest
level to the highest level:

1. Remembering: in this stage, the students
try to recognize and recall the information they receive; they also try to
understand the basic concepts and principles of the content they have learned.

2. Understanding: the students try to
demonstrate their understanding, interpret the information and summarize what
they have learned.

3. Applying: the students practice what they
have learned or apply knowledge to the actual situation.

4. Analyzing: the
students use their critical thinking in solving the problem, debate with
friends, compare the answer with peers, and produce a summary. The students
obtain new knowledge and ideas after implementing critical thinking or a
debate in group activities. In this level of learning, the students also
produce creative thinking.

5. Evaluating:
assessment or established peer-review knowledge, judge in relational terms; in
this stage, students are evaluating the whole learning concepts and they could
evaluate or make judgment on how far they successfully learned.

6. Creating: the students are able to
design, construct and produce something new from what they have learned (Bloom,
1969).

 

In implementing flipped classroom, remembering and
understanding as the lowest levels of cognitive domain are practiced outside
the class hour (Krathwohl & Anderson, 2010). While in the classroom, the
learners focused on higher forms of cognitive work, including applying,
analyzing, evaluating, and creating. The following Figure 1 illustrates the
level of students’ learning in the flipped learning according to Bloom’s
revised taxonomy.

 

 

In Class

 

At  home

 

          Bloom’s Taxonomy in flipped Classroom

 

With the flipped model, the lower levels
are presented before class through recorded lectures and video. Readings,
simulations, and other materials also provide this foundational support for
learning so that in-class time can be spent working on higher levels of
learning from application to evaluation. In flipped classrooms, students go
from the lowest level (remembering) to achieve the highest level (creating).
Lankford (2013) mentioned that the flipped classroom focuses on how to support
the learners in achieving a higher level of the taxonomy domain. Additionally,
Nederveld and Berge (2015) added that in flipped learning, classroom activity
is spent on application and higher-level of learning rather than listening to
lectures and other lower-level thinking tasks. As shown in Table 1,
implementing flipped learning allows the students to spend more time supporting
higher-level learning tasks such as a group discussion, while lower-level tasks
such as knowledge and comprehension are completed independently outside the
class.

Table 1

Comparison Between
Traditional Classroom and Flipped Classroom in Achieving Higher Order
Thinking of Bloom’s Taxonomy Level
of learning

Traditional classroom tools

Flipped classroom tools

Remembering

Face-to-face lecture

Pre-recorded lecture, reading
material, and watching video lectures independently

Understanding

Question and Answer

Reflection, peer-to-peer
discussion and collaboration

Analyzing

Homework

Classroom activities such as a
group discussion

Applying, Evaluating, Creating

Homework or nothing

Student projects,
presentations, peer-evaluation and instructor-evaluation.

 

 

 

B. Methodology

 

Problem definition

 

To enhance teaching and learning process by
introducing a course website to strengthen the fundamental concepts learnt.
Dwight and Juan (1997) 7 gave different approach to introduce freshmen
students to electrical engineering (EE). The main goals were to clear the
fundamentals of subject, give deep knowledge and increase student’s interest in
subject.

 

Since introductory courses play an important
role in student retention and success, there arises a need to generate new ideas to ensure student
interest, attention and learning.
Many groups studied innovative methods to achieve the desired classroom goals.
Instructors are constantly seeking innovative methods to teach students the
engineering concepts in fundamental courses. Fundamental courses are particularly
important for student retention, since these courses are the students’ “first
impression” of the engineering department or program. Additionally, the
beginner is more excited to explore
soft skills and apply fundamental concepts learnt. In this paper, courser website is utilized to enhance the
teaching and learning process for the
subject.

 

Course
website

 

The course website can be design many
different disciplines. Here with the help Google site a free website was
prepare for Basic Electrical Engineering. The course Website is: https://sites.google.com/view/beetcet/home.
This website contains animated videos of various topics from subject, which
includes basic concepts of Physics, Electrical Engineering and introduction to
Basic Electrical Engineering laboratory. The website also encourage students to
take self test or learn subject through Project Based Learning (PBL)

 

a)             
The objectives of the activity

·        
To comprehend the concepts of  D.C.
& A.C. circuits through
Animated Video.

·        
To provide opportunities for students to self evaluate.

·        
To comprehend the concepts Basic Electrical Engineering
laboratory.

·        
To
gain knowledge by making small project.

 

b)      Conduction of the activity

·        
The class strength of 64.

Before starting any new topic, teacher asked all students to
watch videos on course

·        
website.

·        
Next day teacher asked question based on the video.

 

C) Role of teacher
before and after the activity

Apart from the regular classroom teaching the
teacher should use principles of instruction to select or plan and develop
activities to best help students learn.

 

(i)        
Before

•           
Instructed how to use website for gain subject knowledge.

•           
The students were familiarized with the use of
www.google.com

•           
Emphasis was given on

•           
Animated video of Basic Concepts

•           
Online Quizzes.

•           
Other activity like PBL.

 

(ii)      
After

·        
Students took a self evaluate quiz.

·        
Teachers asked pre defined questions to the students.

·        
Students made small project on the subject. 

 

 

C. Results

 

To realize the impact of learning happened
through course website of basic electrical engineering, two written examination
was conducted and feedback was taken.

The fig . 1 shows the comparison of  students attendance in the class.

 

Fig. 1 Attendance
Analysis

The results shows that, though the number of
students having more than 75%  in 2017, is
less, as compare  to 2016, average
students attendance is still almost same.

The result of Term Test-1 and Term Test-2 are
also improved slightly as comparison to previous year.   

 

 

Fig. 2 Result Analysis-1

 

Fig. 3 Result Analysis-2

.

 

 

 

D.  CONCLUSION

In order to go for active learning, the
course website strategy was applied to enhance student’s interest and knowledge.
Examination results show considerable improvement in student’s results.  A flipped classroom concept, allows teachers greater insight into
students’ grasp of information and learning as a result of increased
student/teacher interaction. Students also have the opportunity to
“replay” the lectures several times before formulating their
questions. The drawbacks of this activity is all student should have active
involvement, regularity as well as resource like pc, internet.

This study illustrates that using the Flipped classroom

concept for thirty percent of the course content is a great help for
the students. Some students do not grasp the concept in the beginning. The
Flipped instruction concept facilitates interaction amongstudents, and between
students and their Instructors. Flipped instruction leads to better learning
results. This concept helps students to effectively learn to acquire skill,
knowledge, and also to show a good attitude towards learning. Both Quantitative
and Qualitative results from the Partial Flipped Classed Pilot have been very
encouraging.

From a qualitative perspective, 94% of students responded that they
liked this approach to learning and 72% indicated that this approach ?Helped
them learned the material better?. The results of the study suggest need for
further research. Currently, more study to investigate the impact of flipped learning
to DFW rates is being done. More research are needed, first, perform the same
study with more courses and students and Instructors involvement. Second, look
at Flipped instruction effectiveness with students of special needs. Flipped
instruction approach can be used in introductory and remedial teaching. The
Instructor should start small and keep

it simple. Finally, developing a flipped instruction is a collegial
process.

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

 

1       Kulatunga, A,
“Improving Students’ Conceptual Understanding of Electrical and Electronics
Circuits Via Computer- Based Review Sessions,” Journal of. Industrial Technology, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp.
1-5, 1999.

2       Reisslein,
J., Atkinson, R. K., Seeling, P. and Reisslein, Martin, 2005,
“Investigating the Presentation and Format
of Instructional Prompts in an Electrical Circuit
Analysis Computer-Based Learning Environment,” IEEE Trans. Education, Vol. 48,
No. 3, August 2005.

3       Hudson, T. A., Goldman, M., and Sexton, S. M., 2008, “Using Behavioral
Analysis to Improve Student Confidence with Analog Circuits,” IEEE Transactions
on Education, Vol. 51, No. 3, pp. 370- 377, August 2008.

4       Michael
Prince, “Does Active Learning Work? A Review of the Research,” Journal of Engineering
Education, pp. 223-231, July 2005.

5       Karla A.
Smith, Sheri D. Sheppard, David W. Johnson, and Roger T. Johnson, “Pedagogies of Engagement:
Classroom-Based Practices,” Journal of Engineering Education, pp. 87-101, Jan. 2005.

6       R. Pucher, A
Mense and H. Wahi, “How to Motivatge
Students in Project Based Learning,”
6thIEEE Africon Conference in
Africa, Vol. 1, pp 443-446, Oct 2-4, 2002.

7       Dwight F. Mix and Juan Carlos Balda, “ELEG 1003–
Introduction to Electrical Engineering: An Approach
to Motivate and Teach EE Freshmen,” Proceedings of the IEEE Frontiers in
Education Conference, Vol. 3, pp. 1215-1218,
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, Nov. 5-8, 1997.

8       Muhamad
Rashid, ” Introduction to PSPICE using OrCAD for circuits and Electronics”,
Third Edition, Pearson Education