Developments of safe systems of work U N I T 5

Developments of safe
systems of work
U N I T 5 : H E A LT H A N D S A F E T Y I N C O N S T R U C T I O N
K AT R I N A L O U I S E H A L L

Introduction
Health and Safety is one of the most important aspects of construction. Working
in the construction industry without having an educated background on how to
keep yourself and others safe is extremely dangerous.
In the construction industry there are many ways on how you can risk your health,
safety and welfare (also not only just you, others too). We have legislations in
place to keep everyone as safe as possible; employers, employees, temp workers,
clients, visitors and the public. These legislations are exceptionally helpful and
over the years have saved tons of lives.
Even though there are drawbacks to these legislations, mainly for the employers,
they are for every person’s benefit.
Health and safety plays a huge part in our lives and these legislations that I will be
showing you are just a few of many legislations that save many, many lives.

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The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
Also as HASAWA, this act applies to all working environments, workers, known
sub-contractors, employers and visitors.
What this act does
?Places a duty on everyone in the construction industry to
follow rules in order to ensure health, safety and welfare.
?Places a number of duties on employers. For example to
assess risks and then introduce controls to reduce and
possibly eliminate these risks, an example of doing this is
through a risk assessment.
?Places a number of duties on employees. For example to
take reasonable care for the health, safety and welfare of
their self and other people at work.
Between the years of 1974 and 2014, fatal injuries to employees have fallen by a huge 87%.
This shows that since the HASAWA had been established, the risk of deaths and near deaths
has hugely decreased.

Benefits and drawbacks of the HASAWA
1974
BenefitsDrawbacks
Protects staff –this act protects
employers and their staff from injury,
illness or any other form of harm in the
workplace
Costs–Since employers are required to
provide free PPE and training/education
through this act, it leads to the company paying
a lot for their worker’s safety.
The reduction of absences –Following
this act and maintaining a safe workplace
will reduce the risk of work-related
illnesses and injuries, and therefore
reduce staff absences.
Workplace Inspections –Employees begin to
become familiar with their jobs and often
forget to keep safety uppermost in their minds.
A workplace inspection may throw them off.
Saving time –Having the health and
safety procedures in line allows matters
to be handled quickly.
Education/training isn’t easy –Learning the
classifications is hard, for example it isn’t easy
learning all the types of combustible materials.
The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 started because of the injuries
and deaths that occurred and people needed to be protected at work as
the death toll/mortality rate was increasingly exceeding.

This act has been
tremendously effective
over the years. The
surrounding graphs show
how the death
toll/mortality rate has
decreased.
How has the Health And Safety At Work Act
1974 been effective?
A construction site in the 1900sA construction site this year
There is a massive
change between
construction sites then
and now! Today you find
that there are more
safety procedures than
you did back then.
In a nutshell, this legislation has hugely impacted the
risks of working in the construction industry. Having
this legislation in place allows injuries to be more rare
and many, many lives to be saved. Since 1974, when
this legislation was introduced, the construction
mortality rate has decreased.

What this act does
In a nutshell, this act ensures that
employers sensibly plan work so risks
are managed and you have the right
people for the right job at the right time.
This act also ensures that you have the
right information about the risks and
how they are being managed.
Construction Design and Management
Regulations 2015
Whatever your role is in construction, CDM aims to improve the health and
safety risks in the industry to help you keep yourself and others safe.
Designers and Manufacturers Duties
•ensure that the product/substance is
designed and constructed to be safe.
•To carry out/arrange the testing of
products.
•To take steps that are necessary to
provide adequate information about the
use of the product, such as labels, an
instruction booklet or training.
•Carry out research on any product that
could cause risks to health and safety.
e.g. is the product safe to use indoors?
•To make sure the person testing or using
the product is trained

CDM Regulations 2015
•The
application of
the
regulations
and
definitions of
terms
Part 1
Part 2
•The duties of
specific people
under the
regulations.
Part 3
•The general
requirements for
all construction
sites.
Part 4
•The
transitional
arrangements
as the
regulations
came into
force.
Part 5
The duties of
clients, both
commercial and
domestic, for all
construction
projects.

A summary of duties under CDM
Regulations 2015
CDM Duty holdersTheir main duties
Commercial clientsMake suitable arrangements for managing a project.
Domestic clientsProvide information to other members of the project
team to help them fulfil their duties.
Principal designers and Principal contractorsPlan, manage, monitor and co-ordinate health and
safety in the pre-construction phase of a project. The
same but in the actual construction phase.
ContractorsPlan, manage and monitor construction work under
their control so it is carried out without risks to health
and safety.
WorkersWorkers must be consulted about matters, take care of
their own health and safety, report and cooperate with
their employer.
DesignersProvide information to other members of the project
team to help them fulfil their duties.

Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and
Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 2013
A L S O K N O W N A S R I D D O R, P U T S D U T I E S O N E M P L O Y E R S , T H E
S E L F-E M P L O Y E D A N D P E O P L E I N C O N T R O L O F W O R K P R E M I S E S
T O R E P O R T C E R TA I N S E R I O U S W O R K P L A C E A C C I D E N T S ,
O C C U PAT I O N A L D I S E A S E S A N D D A N G E R O U S O C C U R R E N C E S .
Who should report?
?An employer or someone In control of
the premises
?Self-employed
?A member of the public, employee or
injured person
?A gas supplier
?A gas engineer
?Working offshore
What should be reported?
?Deaths and injuries caused by workplace
accidents
?Occupational diseases
?Carcinogens mutagens and biological
agents
?Specified injuries to workers
?Dangerous occurrences
?Gas incidents

Benefits and drawbacks
RIDDOR now gives you up to 15 days to report
rather than the 10 days that was previously
allowed.
Since recent changes to RIDDOR it is most
likely that you will see a fall of around 30,000
less reports per year! This has been estimated
as a saving of around 10,000 hours per year to
UK businesses.

How RIDDOR has been effective
Key
GREEN = suggests data is
comparable/similar across the
period;
RED = a change
HASH = no data available

References
Slide 3:
‘Work-related fatal injuries to employees and the self employed, 1974-2014/15’
http://www2.cipd.co.uk/community/blogs/b/mark_beatson/archive/2016/04/27/health-
and-safety-at-work-a-british-success-story
Slide 4:
‘Benefits on the HASAWA’
Slide 5:
‘Workplace deaths over the years’
https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/manpower/55-deaths-and-all-were-
preventable
‘Steam shovel at work’
Coady, RJ. 1911. Steam Shovel loading rock.
Machinery

References -continued
Slide 10:
‘RIDDOR changes will have a positive effect, says HSE’
https://www.personneltoday.com/hr/riddor-changes-will-have-a-positive-effect-says-
hse/
‘No you don’t have to report every incident’
https://www.ihasco.co.uk/courses/detail/accident-reporting
‘HSE Implements RIDDOR 2013 Changes’
https://packetts.com/news-posts/hse-implements-riddor-2013-
changes/?doing_wp_cron=1539629927.5897459983825683593750
Slide 11:
‘RIDDOR injury statistics’
http://www.hse.gov.uk/statistics/tables/riddor-injury-statistics.htm
Information on slides:
Pearson. Book 13. ToplissS. Hurst M. Cummings S. DonyaviS. Buckenham A.