Current Affairs Report OnJuvenile DelinquencySubmitted to: Dr. Shuja Ahmed Mahesar Submitted by: Meeta Lohana Keenjhar MemonWaqar Noor Date Of submission: 20th-Dec-2017ABSTRACTJuvenile delinquency is explained in other dimensions of the crime problems in the report given below. We have worked on the formation of juvenile delinquency, its causes are examined and their solutions to overcome youth crime. Its various influences consist of family influence, social and economic influences and peer influences. the report concludes that major cause of youth crime is ignorance by government, corruption is the main reason if corruption is eliminated the major problem will be solved. It is recommended that government should take few steps to improve the living conditions of people and also provide awareness programs to parents through media.Introduction:Crime committed by children and adolescents under the age of 18 years, is called delinquency. The maximum age limit and also the meaning of delinquency vary from country to country. But it is always below 18 years of age which is the statutory age for delinquency. Juvenile delinquency encompasses two general types of behavior status and delinquent offenses. Status offenses are behaviors that are considered inappropriate or unhealthy for children and adolescents, and the behaviors are proscribed because of the age of the offender. Such behaviors, if committed by adults, are not illegal. Examples of status offenses include smoking or using tobacco, drinking or possessing alcohol, running away from home, truancy or nonattendance at school, and violating curfew.. Delinquent offenses are violations of legal statutes that also apply to adults in the criminal justice system. Delinquent offenses include acts of violence against persons, such as murder, rape, armed robbery, aggravated and simple assault, harassment, stalking, menacing, child abuse, and similar offenses. Delinquent offenses also include acts that are considered property crimes, such as burglary, theft or larceny, motor vehicle theft, arson, damage to property, criminal mischief, vandalism, and others. Causes of Juvenile Delinquency There is no single root cause of youth crime. Crime is primarily the outcome of multiple adverse economic and social factors, peer influence and family.Economic factors The major economic factors that contribute to the crime initiations are poverty, unemployment and political situations.Poverty and inequality A poor father who is not able to fulfill the needs of his child and cannot provide him education may lead to criminal thinking mind of child. Homelessness causes the children to spend most of the time on streetUnemployment An unemployed person needs to run his house but due to lack of money he is not able to perform his duty. When he does not find any way to earn; he may get involve in to criminal activities to finance his living.Political situation Due to political uncertainty, sense of insecurity develops in the members of the society. Thesense in which they become hopeless of their future due to which they get involved in unfair means of earning. Social factors Our social structure mirrors to citizens and communities what we value and how we set Priorities. Social environment is needed to be studied with respect to different environmental Scenarios. The core Social root causes of crime are: 1. Inequality, 2. Not sharing power, 3. Lack of support to families and neighborhoods, 4. Real or perceived inaccessibility to services, 5. Lack of leadership in communities, 6. Low value placed on children and 7. Individual well-being, the overexposure to television as a means of recreation. Social environment is needed to be studied with respect to different social scenarios2 For this purpose causes to crime from some of the core parts of the society with whom the youth directly belong are separately explained below. Peer influence Peer pressure is a very strong force that can cause delinquent behavior in adolescents. When friends commit crime adolescents often catch that thing quickly and will do it without knowing the consequences. Parents should have a strong watch on their child with whom they are spending their time in school tuitions and even on social media. Nowadays most of the friendship of adolescent occurs on social media they talk with unknown person and try to explore new things in a very young age. Family It totally depends upon the family of a child that they can make or break the personality of their child. A child learn basic concept of right and wrong from their family because children mind is like a blank paper it is in the hands of parents what kind of values they will insert in that paper. They also learn what the other family member in their family do.Because the ongoing economic problems in family children adopt criminal activities as their parents are not fulfilling their needs.Parenting style matters a lot because sometimes parents become too harsh and they punish their child now punishing children is not a bad thing but sometimes these things can negatively the mind of child which leads them towards criminal activities. Family is considered to a social institution and if such institution undergoes substantial changes like it becomes diversified in a way that it becomes single-parent family then the absence of father in low-income families lead boys to seek masculinity in delinquent groups and when these young kids are exposed to the influence of adult offender then there is a possibility of engaging in adult crime.Lack of communication Often lack of discourse in the family can lead children to find solace other than homes. When they are not having any communication with their parents or family members at home, they may lose unity, trust, and understanding, which can eventually lower their self-esteem or self-confidence. Once they feel they’re losing their individuality, they tend to do things they shouldn’t do to boost their self-confidence. They blindly follow their peers and adopt their unhealthy lifestyles. They shoplift and consume drugs to look cool in the eyes of their peers.Literature review:The delinquent person is guilty of anti-social conduct, perhaps less serious than criminal of misconduct. According to Alexander (1996), factors which are responsible for juvenile delinquency are: broken homes, delinquent community environment, bad company, and peers in the school and, society slums with criminal neighborhood,According to Aber (1998) anti-social behavior use to keep the Violation, aggression, destruction of rules, disobeying the alders and violation of social norms and traditions of society. Researchers view about Juvenile delinquency under the psychological and physiological conditions that a person experiences when a situation is apparent as threatening, harmful, demanding, negligence of parents, family aggression, excessive firmness, peer pressure, uncongenial environment, lack of moral values, maladjustment in school, excess to Media, Life situations , youth violence, gangs, early sexual involvement, alcohol and drug abuse and other problem behaviors in young people are causes for grave concern in least developed countries. No child is ever born as a criminal. It might be their surroundings, the peer group, improper socialization and lack of parental supervision gives rise to the delinquent behavior among children. The child development is not only meant by taking care of the basic biological needs of the children but also providing them proper socialization and extra development for the child. Providing the children with protective cover through strict warning and rigid restrictions are not the solution to prevent the delinquent behavior.Children with strong social bond will commit less crime than those who have weak social bond (Hirschi, 1969). Hirschi, states that what prevents individuals from acting upon internal motivations to commit crime is informal social control which results from the development of social bonds through the process of socialization.Karen (1995), states that there should be a good relationship between the mother and the child so that the child will not develop mistrust and anger. If a child develops anger and mistrust then that child becomes a child without a conscience and behaves in an anti-social mannerStatement of the problem Currently society is suffering from so many problems like illiteracy, poverty, lack of moral educationInflation ignorance of violation laws, peer pressure misuse of social networking sites due to which juvenile delinquency is increasing day by day in Pakistan so our aim was to find out major causes of juvenile delinquency in the context of Pakistan.Research objectiveObjective of our study is to find out the causes of delinquency and to suggest possible solution.Methodology In our research report we collected secondary data from different sources. Our research is on crime which depends heavily upon secondary data. Data Analysis:Over the time period crime rate is increasing throughout the world. Factors responsible for such increase are family, social and economic problems. Pakistan has faced and is still facing crime. Figure 1 shows that since 1996-1998 the number of crime has increased but after that it started to decline.Total number of crimes was dismissed till 2001 and afterwards till 2006 it followed an increasing trend. The sudden increase with the percentage of 18.86 was observed from 2005-06.Although the given graph does not depicts the actual crimes because there are various crime that aren’t reported to the police. Victims of the crime i.e. mobile snatching and pick pocketing when interviewed, it was revealed that majority of the criminals were young (16-30) that reflected that the youth crime rates are extremely high in Pakistan and to develop its remedies to prevent youth we first need to find out the uses of youth crime.Recommendations: Parents education especially mother’s education matters a lot in the development of their children behavior in a positive manner as it is common saying that the best school for a child is the lap of a mother. So government may provide awareness programs to the parents through media.Government should provide all the basic necessities to all people without discriminating their ethnicity, color, religion.At educational institution apart from academics children must provide moral education. Teachers should encourage them to do some social work and teaches them to be kind and polite with everyone.At government level decisions should be taken in order to eliminate poverty in order to improve the living condition of people to reduce juvenile crimes.Media can play their role through awareness programs and educate parents toward their moral responsibilities. ‘In jails police staff needs to be properly trained they should understand the condition of young criminals which are going through very crucial stage. They should guide them properly and save them from drug abuse, sexual abuse and other immoral activities.Conclusion: There is no single factor that can be specified as the main cause of juvenile delinquency. Moreover causes varies from country to country in western world children adopt crime due to lack of attention from their parents, peer pressure, from school neighborhood playgrounds etc. but in Pakistan the main cause is corruption our government don’t have any proper laws and regulation to eliminate such crime from our society. Being a member of this society we always neglect such issues in spite of knowing everything that these kinds of crimes exist in our society we never did anything to get rid from it. It is responsibility of each and every citizen to report such crimes in to police stations and to help them in further investigation. If this thing is implemented in our society crime ratio soon will be declined.