Covers its water, Water bodies like sea, lakes and

Covers two thirds of earth, it’s the source of life for all
living creatures, the only natural substance that can be found in all three
states of matter (liquid, solid, gas) ,makes up to 75% of the Human body its
high surface tension helps with transporting and replenishing nutrients in
plant and animals, you probably guessed it its water, Water bodies like sea,
lakes and ponds are home to thousands of creatures, and these aquatic creatures
are highly dependent on water and different properties of water can affect
their lives on daily basis, two of the most affective properties of water on
the aquatic is the density and the expansion of water when freezing,.


Most substances share the trend where they expand when they
are heated and their density decreases and vice versa and when you cool
something, it contracts and increases in density. This is how substances
generally react to heat but when water is heated from 0 degree Celsius to 4
degree Celsius, its volume decreases and increases only after 4 degree Celsius.
This unusual behavior of water from 0 degree Celsius to 4 degree Celsius is
known as anomalous expansion of water, this unique behavior refers back to the
structure of the water molecule were There is a strong tendency to form a
network of hydrogen bonds, where each hydrogen atom is in a line between two
oxygen atoms. Hydrogen bonding tendency gets stronger and increase as the
temperature gets lower (because there is less heat energy to move the hydrogen
bonds out of position). The ice structure is completely hydrogen bonded, and
these bonds force the crystalline structure to be very “open”, In the
following two pictures, the first shows a typical structure of liquid water,
while the second is an ice structure; note the extra open space in the ice, the
open space is what makes the ice less dense and we are lucky to have water
behaving that way or else many water bodies would have been froze and aquatic
creatures would have been killed.

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As density
is inversely proportional to volume so the density of the water increases as we
increase temperature from 0-4 degree Celsius at 4 Celsius water has maximum
density and minimum volume.

Volume vs temp                                    density vs temp














 In cold countries, when
temperature is under 0 degree Celsius, aquatic life can survive due to
anomalous expansion of water, when the outside temperature is 4 degrees Celsius
the surface of the pond will have max density so it will fall and sink the
pond, When temperature falls to 3 degree Celsius, it expands and its volume increases
but density decreases causing he 3 degree Celsius water to lift above the 4
degree Celsius  This process continues
until water temperature reaches to 0 degree Celsius, ice has a lower density
than water so that makes it float on the pond surface without allowing heat to
escape the pond and this is how aquatic life manage to live. If water didn’t expand when freezing
then the colder dense water will sink down and the pond would freeze from the
bottom up and that would be bad news for the fish.