Contents achieving common goals. In organizational behavior, group refers

 

Contents
A1. 2
A2. 4
A3. 7
A4. 10
 Referencing. 13
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A1.

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i.           
Groups are two or
more interacting people who are mutually accountable for achieving common
goals. In organizational behavior, group refers to the various roles played by
the members of an organization, the ways in which they interact, share common
goals and work together.

      ii.           
In this case the
José, the “chair of a steering force” who is belonging to the group has the
characteristic of self-definition as group members. In this study, the members
agreed when Mariana suggested the decision of using the old designs, therefore,
we know that the members listen to one another and most members participate in
group deal on relevant discussions. However Mariana suggested and shared her
ideas when she spoke about the current design that they used in the production
of pet coffins. Conflicts and disagreements where presented by the members when
Jose’ spoke about redesigning of the product and its manufacturing system and
the purpose of designing a new product. At last the group made a clear decision
and insisted to Jose’ to write a memo to the council of presidents with the
recommendation of using existing designs and to begin immediately to design the
plant and the manufacturing system.

 

    iii.           
Functions of
formal groups: Accomplish complex, independent tasks that are beyond the
capabilities of individuals. A group sets a specific goal for the organizations
and achieves the goal which will be benefited to the whole organization. They
create new and creative ideas and solutions. Groups are formed as a consequence
of the pattern of organization structure and arrangements for the division of work.
Moreover, they coordinate interdepartmental efforts. The individuals detect any
problem and work to change them for better services or developments. They also
implement complex decisions and socialize and train newcomers. However,  a group is seen as a number of people, who
are socially and psychologically aware of each other. It is a vital feature of
a group that a member perceives themselves as a member of the group, while a
group has no exact definition. It varies upon people’s perceptions and
therefore sometimes, it’s difficult to identify. Another function is the
Physical setting, where the members of the group are working in the same
location or in close physical proximity to each other, this will generally help
cohesiveness.

    iv.           
The stages of
group developments are divided into five.

The
forming stage represents a time where the group starts to come together and is
characterized with anxiety and uncertainty. Members are cautions with their
behavior, which is driven by the desire to accept by all the members of the
group. The storming stage is where the conflicts and competitions are at its
greatest. Norming is the next stage where the disagreements, differences and
power issues which were dominant at the storming stage gets worked out. At
performing stage, the group has matured fully committed to the group goals and
allow honest disagreements to be freely expressed.  Lastly, in adjourning stage, the group prepare
for its disbandment.

 

 

 

 

 

A2.

i.           
Learning is any
relatively permanent change is behavior that occurs as a result of experience.
In organizational behavior learning can be defined as the attitude due to
education and training, which are experienced. It is completed by acquisition
of knowledge and skills, which are relatively permanent.

 

ii.           
Each member of the
group has a different lifestyle and they are all from different and they all
are unique with their own fames of reference molded by both internal and
external factors. When establishing new groups or teams, smart managers strive
for diversity by balancing the individuals they select based upon different
internal factors, such as age, race and gender, and external factors like
different backgrounds, educational experiences and political ideologies. As you
can see in this case study all the member that are assign to the task force are
from different country and they are of both knowledgeable and they have
experience on ways that can benefit the group in many ways. Additionally, those
members were chosen for their expertise in various areas and were taking
valuable time away from their normal assignments to participate in the joint
venture. The leadership and the contributions of men and women of diverse
backgrounds, beliefs and culture are best advanced by the conservation on which
all the life depends. After all diversity among group members create better
performance when it comes to out of the ordinary creative tasks such as product
development or cracking new markets, and managers have been trying to increase
diversity to achieve the benefits of innovation and fresh ideas (Diversity for
Groups & Teams in the Workplace).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

iii.           
The
learning process

Learning
always involves some kind of experience. These experiences maybe derived from
inside the body or they may be sensory, arising outside. Procedural learning or
‘knowing how’, concerns your ability to carry out particular skilled actions
such as riding a horse. Declarative learning or ‘knowing that’, concerns your
store of factual knowledge such as an understanding of the history of our use of
the horse.

The
behavioral changes that take place due to learning are relatively permanent.
Behaviour can be changed temporarily by many other factors and in ways which we
would not like to call learning. These other factors include growing up or
maturation (in children), aging (in adults), drugs, alcohol and fatigue.

Learning
cannot be observed directly. We can only observe a person’s behavior and draw
the inference from it that learning has taken place. A distinction has to be
made between learning and performance. Performance is evaluated by some
quantitative and some qualitative measures of output.

 

 

 

iv.           
Theories
of learning

Classical conditioning: 

Classical conditioning is based on the premise that a physical
event or termed a stimulus that initially does not elicit a particular response
gradually acquires the capacity to elicit that response as a result of repeated
pairing with a stimulus that elicits a reaction.

For example, at one manufacturing plant, every time the head
executives from the head office would make a visit, the plant management would
clean up the administrative offices and wash the windows. This went on for
years. Eventually, employees will turn on their best behavior and look prim and
proper whenever the windows were cleaned even in those occasions when the
cleaning was not paired with visit from the top brass. People had learned to
associate the cleaning of the windows with the visit from the head office (Sinha K. ).

Operant conditioning:

Operant conditioning is also called instrumental conditioning
which refers to the process that our behavior produces certain consequences.
According to this theory, behavior is the function of its consequences.

Example, it might be said employees work eight hours a day, six
days a week, in order to feed, clothe and shelter themselves and their
families. Working is instrumental only in obtaining food, clothing and shelter.
Some significant insights can be gained directly from this kind of analysis.
The consequences of organizational behavior can change the environmental
situations greatly affect subsequently employee behaviors. Managers can analyze
consequences of organizational behavior to help accomplish the goals of
prediction and control (Sinha K. ).

Cognitive theory of
learning:

Cognitive theory of learning assumes that the organism learns
the meaning of various objects and events and learned responses depending on
the meaning assigned to stimuli.

Example; In 1903 Edward Tolman found that unrewarded rats
learned the layout of a maze, yet this was not apparent until they were later
rewarded with food. Tolman called this learning, and it has been suggested that
rats developed cognitive maps of the maze they were able to apply immediately
when a reward was offered (Sinha K. ).

 

 

Social learning theory:

Individuals can also learn by observing what happens to other
people and just by being told about something, as well as by direct
experiences. Much of what we have learned comes from observing and imitating
models parents, teachers, peers, superiors, film stars etc. This view that we
can learn though both observation and direct experience has called social
learning theory.

Example; if an employee who has been chronically, a half our
late for work comes in only twenty minutes late, the boss can reinforce that
improvement (Sinha K. ).

 

A3.

i.                   
Attitudes are the
mental state, developed through experience, which are always ready to exert an
active influence on an individual’s response to any conditions or circumstances
to which the person has been directed. It is also called as the persistence tendency
to feel or behave in a particular way towards some objects.

 

ii.                 
If I were in José’
position, first of all I would control all the other members of the meeting. I
would stand up for the ones conversations and values while risking criticism,
censure and ridicule. Jose’ must have that moral courage in order to overcome
the situation where they were in. and also if I were is José’ position, I would
have taken the responsibility and accountability towards the organizational
goal of the company because only then I can get maximum of capabilities
exploited in a real sense. So that It would motivate myself and arouse and urge
to give the best of my abilities, because only then I can motivate the
subordinates to the best (Qualities of leaders).

 

iii.               
Honest: To be a
good leader the leader should be honest to the employees and others. If the
leader is honest to his employees it’s sure that the team will suit well.
Because the employees are the reflection of their leaders (What are the
characteristic of a good leader?).

 Sense of humor: A good leader should have some
sense of humor, so that the working environment will become a happy and healthy
space.

Commitment:
For leaders the one thing that leads to maturity is the fully aware recognition
that one’s decisions make a difference, both positively and negatively, in the
lives of others, and that any attempt to solve a problem might have a decided
negative impact on some, while helping others. In no-win scenarios, one must
still make a hard decision (What are the characteristic of a
good leader?).

Conviction:
A strong vision and willingness to see it through is one of the most important
characterizes of leadership. The leader who believes in the mission and works
toward will be an inspiration and a resource to their followers (The
characteristic of leadership).

Therefore
I suggest that, to be a good leader Jose’ can improve his communication skills.
And also learn how to control over the conversations. He can find a mentor
among his trusted friend or colleagues who he can seek advices from. Moreover,
he has to be really humble. If he made a mistake, he should readily admit his
errors and apologize when needed and admit when he do not have the solution to
the problem.

iv.               
Nature: nature
refers to all the genes and hereditary factors that influence who we are from
our physical appearance to our personality characteristics.

Nurture: nurture refers
to all of the environmental variables that impact who we are, including our
elderly childhood experiences, how we were raised, our social relationships,
and our surrounding culture.

v.                 
Hierarchy
of Needs( Maslow’s theory)

Psychologist Abraham
Maslow developed this theory. It places human needs into five categories
ranging from basic survival needs like food and shelter to the need for
self-actualization. According to his theory once one need is satisfied, an
individual seeks to achieve the next level. When applied to work, the theory implies
that the employer must understand the current need level of each employee to
know what will stimulate them. A new hire that has been jobless for an extended
time will likely be inspired by the need for basic survival.

On the other hand, a
worker concerned with career development may be looking to achieve self-actualization,
so assigning higher level tasks may be in order.

Carrot
and Stick

This traditional
motivational theory, attributed to philosopher Jeremy Bentham, dates back
around 1800 during the industrial revolution. It breaks down motivation into
two basic components: incentives and fear. Some workers are motivated by the
desire to attain additional compensation, a yearning to achieve status and
power by “moving up the ladder”, or the need for praise. But some workers act
out of fear of losing a job, being reprimanded by a supervisor or not being to
adequately perform an assignment.

Motivation
– Hygiene Theory (Herzberg’s theory)

Also known as the two factory theory,
Frederick Herzberg developed in 1959. It postulates that different factors in
the work environment result in either satisfaction or dissatisfaction; Herzberg
referred to these as “hygiene” factors. Factors that leads to satisfaction
includes achievement, recognitions and advancement, while those causing
dissatisfaction include work conditions, salary and peer relationships. In
general, the theory puts forth that superiors must be able to effectively
manage factors leading to satisfaction and dissatisfaction to successfully
motivate employees (Theories of motivation).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A4.

Introduction

Albert
Einstein (March 14, 1879 to April 18, 1955) was a German mathematician and
physicist who developed the special and general theories on relativity. In 1902,
he won the Nobel Prize for physics for his explanation of the photoelectric
effect. In the following decade, he immigrated to U.S. after being targeted by
the Nazis. His work also had a major impact on the development of atomic
energy. In his later years, Einstein focused on unified field theory. With his
passion for inquiry, Einstein is generally considered as the most influential
physicist of 20th century.

Leader’s profile

Nationality:
German 

Born:
March 14, 1879

Death:
April 18, 1955

Spouse:

        Mileva Maric (1903-1919)

        Elsa Lowenthal (1919-1936)

In
1921 he got Nobel Prize in physics “for his services to theoretical physics and
especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect.

Albert
Einstein – Early Work:

In
1901, Albert Einstein received his diploma as a teacher of physics and
mathematics. Unable to find a teaching position, he went to work for the Swiss
Patent Office. He obtained his doctoral degree in 1905, the same year he
published four significant papers, introducing the concepts of special
relativity and the photon theory of light (Albert Einstein Personality
Traits).

 

 

Albert
Einstein and Scientific Revolution:

Albert
Einstein’s work in 1905 shook the world of physics. In his explanation of the
photoelectric effect he introduced the photon theory of light. In his paper
“On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies,” he introduced the concepts
of special relativity.

Einstein
spent the rest of his life and career dealing with the consequences of these
concepts, both by developing general relativity and by questioning the field of
quantum physics on the principle that it was “spooky action at a distance” (Albert
Einstein).

Misconceptions about Albert Einstein:

The
rumor began circulating even while Albert Einstein was alive that he had failed
mathematics courses as a child. While it is true that Einstein began to talk
late – at about age 4 according to his own accounts – he never failed in
mathematics, nor did he do poorly in school in general. He did fairly well in
his mathematics courses throughout his education and briefly considered
becoming a mathematician. He recognized early on that his gift was not in pure
mathematics, a fact he lamented throughout his career as he sought out more
accomplished mathematicians to assist in the formal descriptions of his
theories (Albert Einstein).

What type of leader are they?

Albert Einstein had a restless personality,
although he was a mischievous person and that was primarily because of his
curiosity. He was phenomenally curious, very different from most people in the
world; those who lived then, before him or now. His curiosity drove him or
compelled him to get to the bottom of things, to understand everything around
him and this lead to what others termed as mischief. Albert Einstein had a very
pleasant personality. He was easy to mingle with and his welcoming outreach to
the world and people around him made him quite popular a personality in his
times. He was also a very humble man. It was his humility and accessibility
that made everyone comfortable with him, from world leaders to noble laureates
of his era, from the common man he spoke to on campus to the students who were
fortunate enough (Albert einsteins Biography).

What
makes them a good leader?

·        
Albert Einstein’s
work represented a fundamental change in the way physicists understood the
universe.

·        
Einstein did not
waver from his scientific beliefs, no matter how radical, despite several
challenges from others prominent scientists.

·        
Einstein’s fame
and reputation pushed president franklin D. Roosevelt to pursue an atomic
weapon program which led to the development of the world’s first nuclear
arsenal.

·        
Einstein was an
influential pacifist for most of his career. He spoke out against war, and
urged scientists to refuse to testify in front on the house Un- American
Committee hearings in the United States, challenging Senator Joseph McCarthy’s
tactics in the Red Scare.

Conclusion

              Albert Einstein was a dignified
individual who still holds countless values of a leader and his phenomenal
skills helped him create various theories which then lead on to inventions
Einstein contributed many valuable assets to society during his lifetime such
as: Helping in charity, Photo – electric effect and Theory of gravity and
space.

One
of the greatest leadership traits that made Albert Einstein an influential
individual was his individual personality.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Referencing

Albert Einstein. (n.d.). Retrieved from On jewish matters:
http://www.onjewishmatters.com/albert-einstein-a-profile-of-a-leader/
Albert Einstein Personality Traits. (n.d.). Retrieved from HealthResearchFunding.org:

Albert Einstein Personality Traits


Albert einsteins Biography. (n.d.). Retrieved from Biography.com:
https://www.biographyonline.net/scientists/albert-einstein.html
Diversity for Groups & Teams in the Workplace. (n.d.). Retrieved from Chron.com: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/diversity-groups-teams-workplace-10998.html
Qualities of leaders. (n.d.). Retrieved from Management study guide:
https://managementstudyguide.com/qualities_of_a_leader.htm
Sinha, K. (n.d.). Top 5 Theories Of Learning.
Retrieved from Your article library:

Top 5 Theories of Learning – Explained!


The characteristic of leadership. (n.d.). Retrieved from Leadership toolbox:
http://www.leadership-toolbox.com/characteristic-of-leadership.html
Theories of motivation. (n.d.). Retrieved from Tutor2u:
https://www.tutor2u.net/business/reference/theories-of-motivation-gcse
What are the characteristic of a good leader? (n.d.). Retrieved from Leading effectively:
http://www.leadingeffectively.com/what-are-the-characteristics-of-a-good-leader-infographic/