Cash transfer programs have become an important part of social
protection programs worldwide especially in low and middle-income countries,
The transfers in developed and developing countries take the form of in-kind
(Tabor 2002, Currie And Gahavari 2008 ).
CTPs takes into account recipients preferences ( Harvey and Bailey,
2011, Bailey and Hedlund, 2012)There are 2 types of cash transfers, the type of
cash transfer relies upon the program’s objective.
The first type is ( conditional cash transfers ):- means the
recipients receive the cash under specific conditions such as regular visits to
health care, rates of school enrolments, So they must do these requirements to
receive the cash. Once they have met these requirements, they are free to spend
the money whenever they want in any way , it is also a way to alleviate current
poverty and provide investments in human capital that could lead families to
better living conditions in the long term , CCT may create burdens for
participants if they didn’t meet the conditions , and it is not recommended to
use CCTs in crisis time.
The second type is ( Unconditional cash transfers) :- are provided
to participants without requiring them to do anything in return in order to
receive the cash , UCTs allow participants to purchase the most critical goods
according to their point of view without any intervening , So they have the
freedom to choose when and where they want to spend the money. Participants may
spend the money to cover basic needs or to meet any obligations such as
repaying a debt.
Cash for work ( CFW):- Participants receive the cash after
completing their work, whether they are skilled or unskilled, CFW is considered
as a type of CCT because here the condition is the completion of the work. CFW
was initially intended to alleviate the boredom of people to empower them to be
responsible for their own recovery. It is important to take into consideration
households who are unable to participate in CFW because of their immobility,
injury. so they receive UCCTs But participants who can physically work and have
no problem with that receive CFW.
vouchers:- A type of paper through it goods and services can be
exchanged. Vouchers give participants the right to purchase commodities and
services without using cash, because the handling of cash may lead to
corruption, diversion and for more security reasons it is not preferable to
handle it, vouchers have 3 forms.
the first one
is Cash voucher:- The Vouchers that recipients hold are equivalent to a
specific amount of cash so they can spend vouchers whenever they want at any
pre-approved vendor. Vendors are chosen according to specific programs criteria.
the second form which is Restricted Cash Vouchers:- participants in
the programme have the right to purchase a blend of goods and services that are
recorded on the voucher.
The last form which is Commodity Vouchers:- Recipients have an
access to purchase a fixed quantity and quality of certain goods or services
from any participating vendor.
Fairs:- Can be identified through choosing a common location to
exchange vouchers. Formal and informal suppliers and traders are existed to
supply goods and competing over prices, quality and quantity.
give access to good and services and Cash, Cash should be transferred through
mobile money, which goods and services are transferred through mobile vouchers,
it also gives the ability to pay via smart cards