Case Study – 2
Discussion-1:- Do some Internet research on Chevron’s use of seismic imaging technology. Briefly explain how it works and how it has helped Chevron discover new oil and gas reservoirs. C6-7
Oil and gas are found in the reservoir rocks. These Oil and gas reservoir rock exploration is very costly and challenging especially in deep water. The success in Gulf of Mexico drilling is only 10% over the last decade. According to US Mineral Management Services statistics, only 7% deep water well discoveries were successful in 2006 and 2007. To over this poor success-rate and reduce cost, Chevron invested more in seismic imaging rather than estimated drilling.
Seismic imaging is a tool that bounces sound waves off underground rock structures to reveal possible crude oil and natural gas bearing formations. Seismologists use ultrasensitive devices called geophones to record the sound waves that echo. These recordings help them to identify oil and gas bearing reservoirs beneath. They analyze and interpret this collected data to define the structure and size of the reservoirs. By using this, Chevron achieved a success rate of 69%. This helped Chevron to reduce cost on unsuccessful estimated drillings and increase productivity in oil and gas extractions.
Discussion-2:- Do some Internet research on security vulnerabilities associated with SCADA and digital industrial control systems. Summarize the major security concerns associated with these systems and steps than can be taken to enhance their security.
SCADA environments and digital industrial control systems are theatrically less secure and are potential target for cyber attackers. These systems control the critical components of automation networks. Any failure leads to shut down of essential services like water or power.
Attacks on SCADA systems are high and can be unnoticed. So one should maintain their SCADA systems in a secure manner. Common SCADA and DCL threats and vulnerabilities include
· Lack of Monitoring
· Slow Updates
· Lack of Knowledge about Devices
· Not Understanding Traffic
· Authentication Holes
The important steps that has to be taken are
· Providing Regular Updates
· Isolate SCADA Network are per architecture
· Segregate valid users
· Get Overall View of Network
Discussion-3:- Discuss the pros and cons of moving enterprise-wide applications that have traditionally been supported on premises to the cloud.
The pros and cons of moving an enterprise-wide application to cloud are as follows
· Lowered IT Costs
· Increase accessibility to the system remotely
· Easy disaster recovery and data back
· Setting up new-users will be faster
· Green approach to save costs on equipment and power bills
· Migration of application will take lot of effort
· Compliance Issue due to various laws and regulations
· Certain line-of-business applications are not cloud compatible
· Data Security is also a concern as in placing the data at third party locations
So it is recommended that an enterprise should consider both ups and downs based on their business needs before moving to cloud
Discussion-4:- Do some Internet research on identify management and single sign on systems. Briefly explain how these work and why they are important in business intranets and extranets.
Identity Management System refers to a set of technologies that can be used for identity management of a cross. Identity management describes the management of individual identities, authentication, authorization across the system and enterprise boundaries.
A SSO is used to manage access across multiple different network applications. Single sign-on systems reduce the overall administration work in managing user information across various networked application.
SSO protocols share session information in various ways via a central domain. When a user is authenticated in the central domain, signed Token will be generated. This token will be sent to the client and is used for the authentication. The contains the necessary info needed to identify the user. As the token is signed, it cannot be modified by the client. Whenever the user goes to a different domain, he is redirected to the authentication domain. As the user is already logged-in, he can immediately have redirected to the original domain with the necessary authentication token.
Decentralized systems are becoming increasing day-by-day all over the world. SSO and IM simplifies managing the access to the users across the globe.
Discussion-5:- Why is it increasing most important for a CIO or IT executive who oversees geographically distributed enterprise networks to be business literate?
CIO is no longer focused simply on their key IT infrastructure. He must be concerned with corporate data, convergence of business requirements and available technologies as well.
Due to flooding of modern technologies and managed services, a CIO should take more substantial job. CIOs should form teams of business liaisons to work with corporate heads to match business needs. The CIO should build a new set of solutions, focusing on the enterprise data layer to support faster and better decision making. He should also engross the mobile technologies, supporting the overall shift to a more portable workforce.
So, it recommended that the CIOs should be business literate in a geographically distributed enterprise networks.