Carbon of energy level:2 1 energy level: 2 2

Carbon dioxide


dioxide is a gas used in the earth’s atmosphere, carbon dioxide is used in our
daily life as such as refrigerant, used as photosynthesis by plants and animals

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1.      Carbon dioxide is a carbon and even
an oxygen they are bonded to each other by covalent bonds which means carbon
dioxide is an covalent compound.

2.      Covalent bond is formed between 2 or
more atoms by sharing a huge number of electrons with each other (2015, quora)

bonding is the form of sharing the same electrons between another atom.
Covalent occurs with two atoms from the same bond elements which could attract
each other by the periodic table, the bonding will happen to non-metals and
even to metals. The atoms which have similar negative or positive charge will
have a strong effect on covalent bonds. Covalent bonds do donate their
electrons so they become more stable. (2017,icon and covalent pg2)

A covalent
bond brings two non-metal atoms to share a pair of electrons between each other.
the covalent is part in the outer shells where most of the energy level are atoms.
atoms fill their electrons in the outer shell. The energy from covalent is very
strong. The high energy comes from the electron attraction between the pair of negative
and positive atoms which are shared throughout (pg 4 bitesize)




 A molecule of carbon dioxide











Task 1

Question 2

physical and chemical properties

2. trends

The group1
elements they react very fast. They are kept under oil to keep from water and
air .

Group 1 :


2.sodium Na



1.      Lithium Li

Lithium is added to water is slow and the lithium will float through out

Lithium fizzes, bubbles and becomes smaller than normal size

Lithium will fizzy out until it disappears

Lithium is very soft

Lithium is silver metal, melting point 180.54°C and boling of 1,335°C

Lithium has a mohs scale the hardness of the material

Lithium active element (Sir Humphry Davy )(1778 – 1829)


Number of energy level:2

1 energy level: 2

2 energy level: 1

















2.      Sodium Na

Sodium is soft, lightweight ,sliver and white metallic element

Sodium in water is explosive

Sodium melts and forms a ball which moves within the surface

Sodium fizzes throughout the whole process

Hydrogen is brought into the process which burns with the Bunsen burner
which makes it an orange flame as soon as the orange flame is produced the
sodium disappears

Sodium has a naturally abundant with salt . matter of solids and liquids

Sodium capable of being shaped and even bent

Sodium can be stretched into a thin wire

Sodium has a good conductive of heat

Sodium when it attracts with water it is explosive

Sodium can be burnt with golden
yellow flame

Sodium reacts with many acids to produce hydrogen gas



number of
energy level :3

1 energy :2

2 energy :

3 : energy


    3. Potassium k

Potassium is added to water

Potassium , metal melts which floats throughout

Potassium moves very quickly on top of the surface

The metal is on fire , sparks and lilac flame is produced

Small explosion may occur

silver-white and solid

melting point is about 63 for metal

density is less than normal water


its not good with the attraction of water

gives off a gas

reacts at a good rate with other acids such as, non metals

reacts good with acid oxidizes in the air

The number
of enegry level: 4

1 enegry :2

2 enegry :

3 enegry :

4 enegry :


Group 5:


(P)  Hennig Brandt




1.      Physical

nitrogen is colourless, gas and odourless

nitrogen changes from gas into a liquid at a
temperature of -195.79*c

it can be changed from a liquid to a solid

nitrogen can freezes

nitrogen is a white solid snow

      nitrogen is soluble in water


Room temperature nitrogen is gas

doesn’t mix well with oxygen, hydrogen

in a spark
or lighting presence it can cause nitric oxide


number of
energy level :2

energy :2

energy :5

of phosphorus

Phosphorous is white

Phosphorous is waxy solid –

Phosphorous greenish white glow

does glow in the dark

is very flammable

doesn’t dissolve in water

has a red powered way which can go from orange and purple .red phosphorous is
non toxic

doesn’t dissolve in liquid Phosphorus black powder is made by high temperature which
help with electricity  

1.      chemical

white phosphorous is the most activity

red and black phosphorus is more passive when chemical reaction occur

white phosphorus has a chain reaction because of oxidation

when phosphorus is heated with metals phosphides is gained


2.      arsenic


two allotropic forms

element with different physical and chemical

Arsenic is shiny, grey, brittle, metalli solid

when arsenic is cooled vapor is produced

Arsenic does not melt even when melted

when arsenic id melted it turns into a gas

Arsenic only can be melted at a 814°C if pressured

density of 5.72 grams



Arsenic is Metalloid

arsenic is metal and non-metal

which is between boron and aluminium

when arsenic is heated, it combines with oxygen the burner produces a
blue flame and arsenic oxide is garlic like produced

arsenic is slow in room temperature

arsenic will not dissolve in water

arsenic will not have any effect while reacting with other hot acids




Number of Energy Levels: 4


1 Energy: 2

2Energy: 8

3Energy : 18

4 Energy : 5










Group 7

1.      fluorine, -joseph henri Moissan

2.      chlorine- Carl Wilhelm Scheele

3.       bromine-antonie j.balard


1.      fluorine-physical

colour is
pale yellow white or even can be colourless

can have a freeway in liquid oxygen

fluorine is
pungent not odour

can go from gas to liquid to even liquid to soiled



the chemical
formula of fluorine is F

Fluorine is
very toxic even at normal temperature

fluorine doesn’t
mix well with oxygen

fluorine is
mixed and used as a flux in iron

fluorine is
very dangerous if mixed with water

mixed with elements expect helium neon and argon

fluorine is
good heat resistant

fluorine has a high flammable

structure :

Number of
Energy Levels: 2

1 Energy :

2 enegry:7