By complication of the system for Vivian, which made

Nehi Okungbowa



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it comes to the usability goals related to the system design, a few issues were
found regarding the usability experience, for example the overall
‘effectiveness’ for the users when using the system is one of the key issues
that the system had, because it did not provide enough information on
instructions or help for Vivian, for her to be able to accomplish the tasks on
her own, by implementing the hints messages, help buttons and focus allocator,
this will improve the user experience for the users that have difficulty
understanding the questions asked.

addition to this issue is the complication of the system for Vivian, which made
it quite difficult for Vivian to complete, which relates to the ‘efficiency’ of
the system. The best way to overcome such type of issue is to implement a new
feature by simplifying the wording of the questions to be able to improve the
time it takes for the task to be completed. According to Head (1999), a good interface
design is a reliable and effective intermediary that is able to send the
correct cues so that the task will be done – no matter how minor, artful, or
incidental the design might look to be”. Therefore, navigation is also
important to be implemented in the design for the GP system for users like
Vivian to be able to complete the task in a simpler and quicker way.

main goals of Human Computer Interaction is to produce a usable, effective,
efficient, safe and appealing online system, this will concentrate on how quick
the tasks needs to be achieved and also making sure that Vivian and the rest of
the users will like the system. Usability in general is an important concept
within HCI, to make sure that the online system will have a good usability, the
specialist responsible needs to follow these key issues;

Be aware of the key
factors such as social, psychological and organisational factors that could
affect the way people operate and make use of online systems.

Create toll and
techniques that can assist designers in ensuring that the online system is
suitable for Vivian and the other users.

Also to achieve an
effective, efficient and safe interaction in relation of the both Human
computer interaction and the group interaction

These need to be considered carefully when at the
design stage, it is important for the users not to have to change allot to be
able to use a system, it should be designed to match Vivian and the rest of the
user’s needs.

at current system, there are several issues that has been pointed out which

1.      No
Images- by having no images this would help Vivian or john to understand the

2.      Interface
is dull- plain background and not attractive

3.      Navigation-
tab are all over the place and make sure the navigation brings to the right

4.      Form
filling-  Question is too complicated for
the user to understand, no drop down options

5.      The
structure and layout is not clear- there is no flow

system used at the moment did not offer the best user experience for Vivian and
John as it left them with a feeling of boredom, frustration and an

be able to overcome these negative outcomes our users experienced a new
developed system will be implemented using all the points required that were
collected from each user (Vivian and John) based on the data that was gathered
using a gathering method and to assure that 
their satisfaction and overall experience will be positive feelings, in
addition to make it clear for the users how filling out the questionnaire will
benefit them, to increase motivation. For them to find the new interface
engaging, satisfying, helpful and enjoyable is important which can increase
motivation for any user trying to complete the task. Booth 1989 stated that if
the user has a high degree of motivation behind completing the task then more
effort would be used in overcoming different problems and misunderstandings.

following has been proposed to improve on the interaction experience;

1.      Adding
image that has a meaning to question or the page. e.g. add a logo of the GP.

2.      Navigation
bar will be on the left hand side and will be attractive and there can be other
sub option added in the navigation.

3.      Interface
will be more attractive and meaningful.

4.      The
question will be simplified with radio button and a small text field to write
if others.

5.      The
structure of the system will go in a flow where the user will enter his/her
username and password and bring them to patient portal with multi buttons where
the users can select the required page by simply press the page buttons for
easy navigation.

Dix et al. 2004 states that, “Interaction involves
at least two participants: the user and the system. Both are complex, as we
have seen and are very different from each other in the way that they
communicate and view the domain and the task. The interface must, therefore,
effectively translate between them to allow the interaction to be successful”

Vivian can interact with the online system in a
different ways. One of the lower levels is the batch input; this is where
Vivian provides all her information to the system at once and lets the machine
perform the task. This method is known as indirect interaction. An approach
that involves a real time interaction between Vivian and the system is called
direct interaction, as a dialogue between Vivian and the system will be created
and within the same period will provide assistance, control and feedback right
through completing the task.

The reading of interaction can assist both the
system designers and Vivian simultaneously; e.g analysis of interaction will
assist the designer in understanding what exactly the problem may be with the
interaction, and identify the possible root of the problem, in addition, it can
compare different interaction methods and styles and also take into account the
different interaction problems. On the other hand, Vivian is able to achieve
her goals successfully. Which all relate to the particular online system i.e.
Dix et al. 2004 mentions an area of expertise, profession and knowledge in a
real world’s activity. Vivian would interact with the online system for a
specific reason for example to complete a task and reach an objective, in turn
to achieve the overall goal, which was (for example) the main reason for Vivian
visiting the GP in the first place.

last, it is up to the user to translate the output and to connect it to the
results of the “interaction relative to the actual original goal” (Dix et al.
2004). At this stage, the evaluation phase has been completed so has the
interactive cycle. A new cycle can then be started.

technique used for gathering the data will be a ‘focus group’, where Vivian can
participate in with other senior citizens, where they can share their
understanding, knowledge, thoughts and feelings towards the GP online system
used. This makes it easier for the designer to gather data that will help in
identifying the key requirements and issues that need to be solved for the
final gp online system design, the benefits of using such type of gathering
technique is that it puts the user in this case Vivian in a more comfortable
environment amongst her peers, which could give us more reliable data which can
be of help when redesigning.

John’s case he was requested to come into the practice to fill out the form
when he see the nurse, there an investigator will be able to ‘observe directly’
to see how John is coping with the prototype system and what type of issues if
any he may face.

investigator will be in charge of the recording and understanding of John’s
context, tasks and goals.

addition, other data gathering  techniques
that could be used with Vivian and John for example unstructured interviews,
this is the opportunity to ask open ended questions, which could produce a
richer much more detailed result and qualitative data, this also allows us to
watch her responses and her body language following those responses. Using this
technique allows us to check on the validity of the given answer an also get a
deeper understanding on the answer that was provided and also allow us to
explain a question in further detail if not understood.

were used for data collection from other users such as Vivian, John, Jennifer,
Jessica and Andrew.  It is important that
the questionnaire design will be a 
multiple choice paper based where the user can for example rate 1 to 5,
like or not like, agree or disagree.

it comes to other techniques used to gather data such as data recording,
structured and semi- structured interviews, direct observation in an
environment that would be controlled by the interviewers, these are not
applicable in this case because of patients’ confidentiality, privacy, and data
protection, which are all ethical considerations that should be checked. The
context, time and resources if available also play a big role in how the
interviewee would understand the question.

conclusion, the report has analyzed the GP medical system that is currently
being used, issues with the system as well as the benefits, and suggestions on
areas of improvement. It has explained explain how human computer interaction
has improved over a time and how it helps when developing new and old online
systems, also suggest redesign implications from the GP medical system, using
different HCI concepts and principles as possible.

The report has
outlined the basic concepts that are based around Human Computer Interaction
and the usability aspect used in the online systems development process which
are very useful to the business world as it increases the work efficiency of
the staff and makes all users life’s easier. HCI and usability are key in any
design, including the sustainability of a design to be able to recognise a new
and smart technology, so it is important for designers to always implement the
use of HCI and usability in their design plans. The views of the users helped
in identifying areas which need improvement for better use of the app.















Usability encompasses
the following aspects: functionality, efficiency, effectiveness, satisfaction, special
users, specific goals, and specific context of users. Usability refers to the
quality of the interaction in terms of parameters such as time taken to perform
tasks, number of errors made, and time to become competent users (Zhang et al., 2004).
Alternatively, usability is a quality attribute that assesses how easy user
interfaces are to use. The usability evaluation stage is an effective method by
which a software development team can establish the positive and negative
aspects of its prototype releases, and make the required changes before the
system is delivered to the target users. From the user’s perspective, usability
is considered a very important aspect in the development process as it can mean
the difference between performing and completing a task in a successful way
without any frustration is not highlighted in website design, then users will
become very frustrated working with it.


For example,
according to Nielsen Shackel (1997), people will leave the

(a) If it is
difficult to use;

(b) If the users
get lost on a website;

 (c) The information is hard to read;

(d) it does not
answer users’ key questions;

(e) and lastly,
if the homepage fails to defi ne the purpose and the goals of the website.

” Usability
rules the web. Simply stated, if the customer cannot find a product, then he
will not buy it. In addition, the web is the ultimate customer-empowering
environment. He who clicks the mouse gets to decide everything. It is so easy
to go elsewhere; all the competitors in the world are but a mouse-click away” (Dix, Finlay, Abowd
& Bealle, 2004). The causal framework of usability
to shows a relationship between task, user and system characteristics as
independent variables and user reaction as dependent variable.  Various principles need to be followed in
order to support usability, making systems

These principles

• Learnability:
by which new users can begin effective interaction and achieve maximal

• Flexibility:
the multiplicity of ways the user and system exchange information;

• Robustness:
the level of support provided to the user in determining successful achievement
and assessment of goals;

• Efficiency:
once the user learns about the system can perform the tasks;

• Memorability:
how easily the user will remember the system functions, after a

period time of
not using it;

The goal of
interaction design is to create products that enable the user to achieve their
objectives in the best way possible.

The interaction
between a user and a product often involves elements like aesthetics, motion,
sound, space et. Aspects of interaction design: words-, button labels- should
be meaningful and easy to understand, visual representations – images,
topography and icons should supplement words to communicate with users,
physical objects or space- what physical objects do users interact with the
system? Is it accessible from a smartphone? Appearance- does it give a clue
about the product (Smith
& Green, 1980). Interaction designers develop
wireframes or protypes to layout interaction in the product.


Interactive Prototype
for Hospitalrun Redesign: User Reflection


Register and book an appointment

The traditional approach to seeking
appointment with doctors is one of the few things that I had wished could be
done differently. Having to literally travel and visit the place hoping that
you would actually find fi the place is on or even if the doctor is available
was considerably a challenge, especially if a person has to travel a longer
distance. The problem deepens when a patient fails to even secure an
appointment with the doctor due to a long outside the premise, which sometimes
leave patients an attended to due to time limitations. However, with this
online booking, I feel like finally someone has answered my wish. I can now
interact and have my issues addressed whilst at home before the actual visit,
which is also guaranteed following the fact that I can schedule appointment
with the doctor based on certain grounds that are within the doctor’s as well
as my calendar.

The interface, right from the ‘register’
to within various pages, it was relatively simple and clear, which made it easy
to go through and complete the process of booking an appointment online.
Navigation is an aspect that I have always considered crucial when it comes to
webpages due to the fact that I find it demoralising having to deal with
complex designs. However, just as it would happen to quite a number of other
people, I tend to look for information relatively fast, for which was perfectly
accounted by the clear, concise, and easily understood navigation within the
webpage; it was relatively easy to locate an option that prompts for new

Even though booking an appointment may
have relatively easy, which I notice upon completing it, I realised that I
could have spent less time going through the whole process could there be
guidelines that direct new users through various navigations. Having options
that employ previous search histories and relevant patient records to obtain
patient-specific recommendations and direct new users about how to book an
appointment based on what he or she is looking for would be make the entire
process simple for users. However, I think the ‘popup’ window with appointment
from was an integral feature that redirects the attention of the user from the
congested surface with relatively many pages to differentiate to a simple one
page that only prompt for answers. In conclusion, registering and booking
appointment was made easy by navigations that were clear, concise and easily

logging in the system and reviewing patient records then requesting for more

There are many factors that were
definitely considered to produce such good level of clarity and simplicity,
amongst other features that the design offers to users. The development
factors, including platform constraints, tool kits and components libraries,
which are normally oriented towards improving visual communication, produced an
interface design that has more quality feature regarding visibility. Right from
the ‘log in’ platform, the design of the pages is organised; there is
consistency, well organised screen layout, relationships between various pages
and navigability are some of the factors that I noticed to have improved the
organisation of interface. Regarding consistency, the design features good
internal, external, and real-world consistencies that feature different kinds
of items and behaviour that have their own special appearance. The colour use
in most parts of the design provide not only visual effects, but also
real-world consistence in which users can relate features of the design with
real-world experiences, observation and perception. For example, whilst sending
a message to a patient that had booked an appointment early and inquire for
more information, the severity colours; green, yellow, and red; induces the
perception of urgency and importance in the minds of users at both ends to
optimise the accuracy and reliability of information that is sent and received.
I believe that this is one of the features that make the design more productive
in clinical context.

Besides the screen layout of the
interface that made it easy to locate various feature due to its use of a grid
structure, standardised layout, and group related layout, I think the clear, consistent,
and strong relationships between various elements made location of menus and
dialogue boxes relatively easy. Due to this screen layout, I was able to easily
locate information about patient bookings with respect to dates and time that
made it very simple to understand issues for which these patients seek
solutions and respond appropriately with optimised ease. Navigability
techniques that feature in the interface also improved its usability. With
‘popup window’, dialogue boxes, bulleted items, and well-structured forms and
tables, the interface an initial focus on patients for the viewer’s attention,
direct attention to important or secondary items that further simplifies
navigation and make the entire process simpler. For example, after navigating
and locating a booking about a patient, clicking on the view provides a popup
window that offers information in table form and then allow for commencing a
messaging conversation with the patient. Therefore, I think logging into the
interface, reviewing patient’s information and inquiring for more information
was relatively simple due to various features in the interface design that I
have mentioned earlier in this and the previous paragraph.

Administrator: logging in the system and viewing patient record history

 As a patient administrator, good
administrative record keeping practices are some of the areas that I consider
crucial to the overall task or responsibility completion. To improve patients’
experience as well services that are offered to them, it is imperative that
track records are kept appropriately to inform nay necessary adjustment to
their plans. Also, a good record keeping practice makes it relatively easy to
hold people accountable and responsible for their actions, which then optimise
the level of efforts that they put into serving patients. As I was logging into
the patient administrator system, I realised that having records about a
patient in a central location is not only the positive side of the system but
also the fact that it was relatively easy to locate various items and dialogue
boxes and navigate various pages. Navigability techniques that feature in the
interface also improved its usability. The dialogue boxes, bulleted items, and
well-structured forms and tables, allowed the interface initial focus on a
patient, directed my attention to important or peripheral items that further
simplified navigation and made the entire process simple.








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